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Full text of "Report of Commission on University Consolidation : submitted to Governor O. Max Gardner and the Board of Trustees of the University of North Carolina : authorized by chapter 202, Public laws 1931"

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Form No. A-368, Rev. 8/95 

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Commission on 
University Consolidation 

Submitted tg 

Governor 0. Max Gardner 


The Board of Trustees 


The University of North Carolina 

Authorized by 
Chapter 202, Public Laws 1931 

Raleigh, North Carolina 


O. Max Gardner, Chairman, Governor of North Carolina Raleigh 

Dr. Frank P. Graham, President University of North Carolina Chapel Hill 

Dr. E. C. Brooks, President North Carolina State College Raleigh 

Dr. J. I. Foust, President North Carolina College for Women Greensboro 

Dr. L. R. Wilson, Librarian University of North Carolina Chapel Hill 

Dr. W. C. Riddick, Dean School of Engineering, North Carolina 

State College Raleigh 

Dr. Benjamin B. Kendrick, Professor of History North Caro- 
lina College for Women Greensboro 

S. B. Alexander Charlotte 

Mr. F. L. Jackson, Treasurer Davidson College Davidson 

Mrs. E. L. McKee .._„ _ Sylva 

Miss Easdale Shaw Rockingham 

Judge N. A. Townsend _ __ Charlotte 

Fred W. Morrison, Secretary, Executive Secretary of the 

North Carolina Tax Commission Raleigh 


Governor Gardner 
Dr. Brooks 
Dr. Wilson 
Dr. Kendrick 

Mr. Jackson 
Mr. Morrison 



Chapter Page 

Introduction 1 

I. Findings and Recommendations 6 


Introduction 11 

I. Administrative and Educational Organization __. 17 

II. Allocation of Functions .„ „ 21 

III. Supplementary Suggestions 32 

IV. Preparation of Teachers _ 37 

V. Engineering and Industry _... 52 

VI. Commerce and Business Education 57 

VII. Adult Education 70 


A. Activities Undertaken by Graduates of the North Carolina 

College for Women the First Year after Graduation 91 

B. Activities in Which Graduates of the North Carolina College 
for Women, 1922-31, Inclusive, were Engaged in the Autumn 

of 1931 92 

C. Average Score and Standard Deviation on High-School Test 

of Students of Commerce and Business Administration 93 

D. Tentative Program for Training Teachers of Commercial 
Studies for High Schools in North Carolina at the North 
Carolina College for Women 94 

E. Chapter 202, Public Laws of North Carolina 1931— The 
University Consolidation Act __ 95 

F. Special Message of Governor 0. Max Gardner to the 1931 
General Assembly on the Proposed Consolidation of the 
University, State College and North Carolina College for 
Women 99 

"Our problem is not to concentrate upon the 
minor maladjustments which may be cured by 
remedial internal administration. Our problem is 
rather to view the entire higher educational effort 
of this State in terms of trends extending over 
generations and to direct these trends into channels 
which will prevent waste and insure to the rising 
generations the best training we can provide. This 
act makes possible ultimately the united support of 
North Carolina behind one great unified, coordi- 
nated, and intelligently directed enterprise. No 
other act of the 1931 General Assembly will have a 
deeper or more enduring effect on the future of 
this commonwealth." 

O. Max Gardner. 


The Commission on University Consolidation which was appointed by 
Governor O. Max Gardner, June 20, 1931, presents its report to the Governor 
to be submitted by him to the Board of Trustees of the University of North 
Carolina, in compliance with Chapter 202, Public Laws of North Carolina, 

The report consists of two parts. Part I presents for the consideration 
of the Board of Trustees of the University of North Carolina the findings 
and recommendations of the Commission on Consolidation. Part II is the 
report of the survey committee appointed by the Commission, in compliance 
with Section 8 of the Consolidation Act, to make recommendations to it 
with regard to the "form, extent, procedure and all details of unified guidance 
and control" in providing a practical plan of consolidation, coordination, 
and unification and merger of the University of North Carolina, North 
Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engineering, and the North 
Carolina College for Women into "The University of North Carolina." 

Chapter 202, Public Laws of North Carolina 1931, which is printed as 
Apendix E of this report, defines the powers, duties and responsibilities of 
the Commission on Consolidation. The Commission is charged, under the 
Act, with the following responsibilities among others: 

1. To work out a scheme to bring about an unification 
of the executive control in the University of North Carolina, 
North Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engineer- 
ing, and the North Carolina College for Women, so that 
each of said institutions may best serve the state and the 
needs of the people. 

2. To unify and coordinate the general educational 
program of the University of North Carolina as herein 
provided for. 

3. To work out a scheme in which, and through which, 
all the problems arising from the consolidation of the three 
existing institutions into the University of North Carolina 
may, in their opinion, be best solved. 

4. That the final location of all schools, departments, 
and divisions of work now located at any of the three 
institutions shall be subject to the study and recommenda- 
tions of the experts and the commission without prejudice 
by any provisions in this bill. 

5. To consider the advisability of the awarding of 
diplomas or other certificates ex legis by the University of 
North Carolina to former graduates of the North Carolina 
State College of Agriculture and Engineering and the North 
Carolina College for Women, and to recommend the form or 
forms thereof. 

The Commission was directed by the Act to enter at the earliest reason- 
able time upon the performance of the above mandatory duties and to so 
continue until it had provided a practical plan of consolidation, coordination, 

2 Report of Commission on University Consolidation 

and unification and merger, and to place its report in the hands of the 
Governor and the Board of Trustees of the University of North Carolina 
not later than July 1, 1932. It was also directed to employ distinguished 
and competent experts in the several pertinent fields of higher education in 
America to make recommendations to the Commission with regard to the 
form, extent, procedure, and all details of unified guidance and control. 
These experts were directed, under the act, to take account of the experiences 
of the several American states in the various forms of unification, and also 
to study the circumstances and needs of higher education in North Carolina. 

At its first meeting, held in the Governor's Office, July 16, 1931, the 
Commission requested the Governor to appoint a subcommittee of four 
members of the Commission to consult with suitable persons and agencies, 
and receive their advice as to the best methods for the Commission to pursue 
in carrying out the purposes of the statute. The Governor appointed on 
this subcommittee Messrs. L. R. Wilson of the University of North Carolina, 
E. C. Brooks of the North Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engi- 
neering, Benjamin B. Kendrick of the North Carolina College for Women, 
and F. L. Jackson of Davidson College. The first meeting of the subcom- 
mittee was held in the office of the Governor on July 18. It requested the 
Governor to serve with it as chairman and Fred W. Morrison, secretary to 
the Commission, to serve as secretary to the subcommittee. It also requested 
LTr. Wilson and Mr. Morrison to confer with Dr. William John Cooper, 
United States Commissioner of Education, and discuss with him the various 
ways in which the United States Office of Education could serve the Com- 
mission in its work and the various individuals and organizations competent 
to serve as a survey committee. 

As a result of conferences between Dr. Cooper and Dr. Fred J. Kelly, 
specialist in higher education in the Office of Education, and the subcom- 
mittee, it was agreed that the Office of Education would maintain an 
advisory and counseling relationship to the Commission and would assist in 
the selection of the survey committee of experts. 

After a thorough canvass of the scope of the survey and of individuals 
and organizations equipped to undertake it, the Commission, at a meeting in 
Greensboro on October 5, selected Dr. George A. Works, Dean of Students 
and University Examiner of the University of Chicago, as director of the 
survey. On his recommendation, the subcommittee authorized the appoint- 
ment of Dr. Frank L. McVey, President of the University of Kentucky, and 
Dr. Guy S. Ford, Dean of the Graduate School and Acting President of the 
University of Minnesota, to act as associates. 

In the very beginning of the work of the survey committee the Com- 
mission instructed the director that, while the members of the Commission 
would cooperate in every practical way with the survey committee on its 
study of the institutions and in gathering information on which its recom- 
mendations to the Commission would be based, the survey committee would 
be given full and complete freedom to make an unhampered survey of the 
institutions and of all questions having a pertinent bearing on consolidation, 
allocation of functions, executive control, and other issues without inter- 
ference of any sort from the Commission. This resolution was proposed by 
Dr. Graham, seconded by Dr. Foust, and received the unanimous approval 
of the Commission. 

Introduction 3 

In making acknowledgment of the fact that this relationship existed 
throughout the entire labors of the survey committee, Dr. Works wrote to 
the secretary of the Commission on June 17, 1932, as follows: 

"My dear Dr. Morrison: 

"In submitting this report in its final form to the North 
Carolina Commission on University Consolidation, I wish 
on behalf of the Survey Committee to bear testimony to 
the complete freedom with which we were permitted to carry 
out our investigations. At no time was any effort made by 
either administrative officers or faculty members of any 
one of the institutions to influence us in the recommenda- 
tions made in this report. The officers and teachers of the 
three institutions cheerfully furnished us with facts and 
with their views upon request, but there was not the slight- 
est effort made to have their opinions incorporated in the 

"It has been a pleasure to prosecute this study under 
these conditions. 


George A. Works." 

The list of specialists who assisted the survey committee in the study of 
various questions and issues arising in connection with their work, and the 
list of the individuals with whom the tentative proposals of the committee 
were studied and discussed before being presented to the Commission are 
to be found in the introduction to the report of the survey committee. 

Dr. Works and his associates began active work on the survey in 
October. Before the end of the year all of the specialists had visited each 
of the institutions to gather the data and information relating to the aspects 
of the consolidation problem on which they were working. 

Dr. Works himself spent the greater part of November and December 
in North Carolina and came back for conferences with the subcommittee 
and the presidents, administrative officers, and members of the faculties of 
the institutions in January, February and March. 

Meetings of the Consolidation Commission were infrequent. It held 
meetings on July 16 and October 5, 1931, and June 13-14, 1932. The sub- 
committee held its meetings as follows: July 18, September 28 with Dr. 
Cooper and Dr. Kelly, October 8 with Dr. Works, December 14 with Dr. 
Works and Dr. Kelly, and March 7 with a group of industrial leaders of the 
state and Dr. Works, President W. E. Wickenden, and Dean R. A. Stevenson. 

In the more important questions of allocation of functions and of 
developing the strongest possible schools and departments, the subcommittee 
and the director and experts discussed the needs of the state with groups of 
citizens not directly connected with higher education. On March 7, the 
subcommittee held an all-day meeting with Dr. Works, President W. E. 
Wickenden, specialist in engineering; and Dean R. A. Stevenson, specialist 
in business education; and, on the invitation of the Governor, with the 
following persons: W. D. Faucette, Chief Engineer of Seaboard Air Line 

4 Report of Commission on University Consolidation 

Railway Company, Norfolk, Va. ; J. E. S. Thorpe, President of the Nantahala 
Power Company, Bryson City; H. M. Wade, furniture manufacturer, Char- 
lotte; Herman Cone, textile manufacturer, Greensboro; David Clark, textile 
editor, Charlotte; W. S. Lee, Vice-President of Duke Power Company, Char- 
lotte; S. B. Alexander, member of the Commission, Charlotte; K. P. Lewis, 
textile manufacturer, Durham. The discussion centered around the problems 
and needs of business and industry, and the opportunities open to college 
graduates in North Carolina. Similar problems in other fields were discussed 
by members of the survey committee and specialists with many persons 
throughout the state. 

The report of the survey committee, which was mailed to the individual 
members of the Commission early in May, was presented to the Commission 
by Dr. Works, director, at a two-day meeting, June 13 and 14, 1932. In 
presenting the report Dr. Works developed the background out of which 
the consolidation idea grew, and set forth the attitude and point of view 
which controlled the committee in making the survey and writing the report. 
He emphasized the fact that throughout the work on the survey the com- 
mittee itself and its staff of experts had consciously endeavored to disregard 
the interests of any one person, institution, or group, and to keep paramount 
the interests of the State itself with special consideration of the kind of 
unified institution the State is able to support and ought to support. 

It was the fixed purpose of the survey committee to recommend one 
consolidated institution with three branches of such nature as would com- 
pare favorably with other institutions in quality of work and in ability to 
serve North Carolina as a whole. He also emphasized the fact that in 
drafting the report the survey committee considered the needs of the future 
as paramount to our present situation, and he urged the Commission to 
look into the future and give to the people of North Carolina the best advice 
they can. He laid especial emphasis on the fact that the survey committee 
had consistently held itself free from planning a new organization for the 
immediate future. It was the conception of the committee that the building 
of a university represents a growth, and that the form it takes will be 
changed and colored by the changes coming into the social life of the State 
as a whole. In the judgment of the survey committee the educational 
organization herewith recommended will develop in response to the needs 
of all the people so that the University of North Carolina will come to serve 
fully and freely the State of North Carolina. 

Section 8 of the Consolidation Act provided that the expenses of the 
Commission, including the compensation of experts in the several pertinent 
fields and other necessary expense should be paid out of the contingency 
and emergency fund. An allotment of $12,900 was made for this purpose. 
The Commission has expended $12,726, including the printing of the report. 

The Commission acknowledges with genuine gratitude its indebtedness 
to Dr. George A. Works of the University of Chicago, who directed the field 
survey and the preparation of the report of the survey committee; and to his 
associates. Dr. McVey and Dr. Ford. Their conception of the task of the 
Commission, their sympathetic understanding of the traditions and ideals 
of the people of North Carolina, and their conscientious endeavor to present 
a report that would preserve the best traditions of each of the institutions 

Introduction 5 

and at the same time set up a comprehensive plan for these institutions to 
serve in a broad way future needs of our state, were evident in all of their 
relations with the Commission and in the report submitted. 

The Commission also makes grateful acknowledgment to Dr. William 
John Cooper, Commissioner of Education, and Dr. Fred J. Kelly, specialist in 
higher education in the Office of Education, for their unstinted services 
throughout the work of the Commission. Their services were invaluable in 
the planning of the survey, and their advice and counsel in all the labors of 
the Commission gave it feeling of security in making many of its decisions. 

The officers and members of the faculties of each of the institutions 
were constantly helpful in providing data and information, and in discussing 
many of the problems which the Commission had to reach decisions upon. 

If the Commission could properly express its appreciation for the con- 
structive and patient spirit of helpfulness of one of its own members, it 
would take this opportunity of making acknowledgment of its indebtedness 
to Governor 0. Max Gardner, Chairman of the Commission. From the very 
beginning of the idea of consolidation, and throughout the labors of the 
Commission, Governor Gardner has been a bulwark of strength and help- 
fulness to the Commission. It is taking the liberty of printing as Appendix 
F the special message of the Governor addressed to the General Assembly 
on February 13, 1931, when the Consolidation Act was introduced in the 
House of Representatives. 



The Commission on University Consolidation in a meeting in the 
Governor's office June 13-14, 1932, received the report of the survey 
committee as presented by Dr. Works and, after full discussion of the 
proposals contained in the report, by unanimous vote made the following 
findings and recommendations and directed that they be transmitted to 
the Board of Trustees of the University of North Carolina. 

The Commission recommends to the Board of Trustees: 

That the executive committee of the Board of Trustees be composed 
of eight members and be so appointed that the terms of two members 
shall expire each two years. 

That the Governor be ex-officio chairman of the executive committee 
in addition to the other eight members. 

That the executive committee hold at least four regularly scheduled 
meetings each year - one in each academic quarter. 

That the executive committee be given full power to act for the 
Board of Trustees except at the regular meetings of the Board. 

That a single executive be the head of the University and that 
he be elected to go into office if possible not later than July 1, 1933, and 
that for the coming year or until such time as such executive is elected, 
the three presidents of the three institutions serve as a presidential di- 
rectorate with the assistance, if available, of a member of the survey 
committee or Dr. Kelly as adviser or coordinator. 

That the chief executive of the University be designated as "Chan- 
cellor" and that the head of the separate units be designated as "Presi- 
dent" of that unit. 

That the consolidated University have a comptroller appointed by the 
Board of Trustees and responsible to the Board through the chief 
executive and that such comptroller be employed as early as conveniently 

That an administrative council be established as outlined in the report 
of the survey committee after such modification as may be found prac- 
ticable and necessary and that until a chief executive has been elected, 
the council itself choose its chairman. 

That the "University Senate" provided for in the report to be desig- 
nated as "Faculty Assembly". 

That the consolidated institution operate under one director of 
summer schools, beginning in preparation for session of 1933. 

That the University System have one director of extension, beginning 
in September 1932, with the details of his duties to be worked out by the 
presidential directorate. 

That the University System have one director of graduate studies and 
research, beginning in the fall of 1933. 

That all schools of education be changed to departments of education, 
and that there be a council on education representative of the three 
branches of the University appointed by the presidential directorate to 
have under its consideration the possibilities of improvement in the train- 
ing of teachers and the effective study of education. 

Findings and Recommendations 7 

That the Commission recommend to the Board of Trustees that the 
General Assembly be requested to revise the law with respect to free 
tuition in all state supported institutions so as to provide free tuition in 
part or in whole upon merit only. 

That the training of elementary school teachers be transferred to 
Greensboro beginning the academic year 1933-34. 

That the training of librarians be transferred from Greensboro to 
Chapel Hill beginning the fall of 1933. 

That no new students be admitted to the School of Business of State 
College beginning with the academic year 1933-34. 

That the Presidential Directorate during the academic year 193 2-33 
make a study of the curricula and courses offered in the University for 
the purpose of eliminating such courses as may be deemed unnecessary. 

That the Presidential Directorate make a study of the administrative 
organizations of the several branches of the University for the purpose of 
making them more effective and more economical wherever practicable. 

That the Presidential Directorate give careful study to the possibili- 
ties of improving the quality of instruction and effecting economies by 
exchange of teachers and students. 

That when major vacancies occur in any of the faculties in the 
academic year 193 2-3 3 the appointments made should so far as possible 
be of a temporary nature so as not to interfere with such action as the 
Board of Trustees on the advice of the chief executive might wish later 
to take. 

That beginning with the summer session of 1933 the fees of the three 
institutions should be made uniform. 

That the Chancellor, when elected, be known as the "Chancellor of 
the University System". 

That the Board of Trustees, together with the Chancellor of the 
University System, hereafter to be elected, after careful study of the 
report of the survey committee and such other independent investi- 
gations and studies as they deem advisable, shall make from time to time 
such changes and transfers among the several units as to bring about such 
further steps in consolidation as shall seem to them to be for the best 
interest of the University System and the State. 

That the Governor, after advising with the three presidents, com- 
municate with the presidents of the private colleges of the state and 
advise them of the advantages of institutional cooperation and suggest 
to them that they give consideration to the ways in which they may 
strengthen the work in their colleges by cooperating in a system of higher 
education for the State. 

That the report of the Commission on Consolidation, which is to be 
made to the Board of Trustees, together with the report of the survey 
committee, be printed. 

That the Commission extend to Dr. Works and his associates their 
sincere thanks for their assistance and for their constructive report. 






University Consolidation 



F. L. McVEY 



June. 1932 


The General Assembly of North Carolina, on March 2 7, 1931, ratified 
an act by which the University of North Carolina, the North Carolina Col- 
lege of Agriculture and Engineering, and the North Carolina College for 
Women were "consolidated and merged" into the "University of North 
Carolina." This Act further provided for a commission of twelve persons 
in addition to the Governor "to work out plans for the consolidation of the 
component parts of the University." The Governor is ex officio chairman 
of this commission, which is known as the "Commission on University 

The commission as finally constituted consisted of the following: 

Governor O. Max Gardner, chairman. 

Fred W. Morrison, secretary, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Dr. Frank P. Graham, President, University of North Carolina. 

Dr. E. C. Brooks, President, North Carolina State College. 

Dr. J. I. Foust, President, North Carolina College for Women. 

Dr. L. R. Wilson, Librarian, University of North Carolina. 

Dr. W. C. Riddick, Dean, School of Engineering, North Carolina State 

Dr. Benjamin B. Kendrick, Professor of History, North Carolina Col- 
lege for Women. 

Mr. S. B. Alexander, Charlotte, North Carolina. 

Mr. F. L. Jackson, Treasurer. Davidson College. 

Mrs. E. L. McKee, Sylva, North Carolina. 

Miss Easdale Shaw, Rockingham, North Carolina. 

Judge N. A. Townsend, Charlotte, North Carolina. 

Responsibilities of the Commission 

By this Act, the commission was charged with these responsibilities 
among others: 

"1. To work out a scheme to bring unification of the executive control 
in the University of North Carolina, North Carolina State College of Agri- 
culture and Engineering, and the North Carolina College for Women, so 
that each of said institution may best serve the needs of the people. 

"2. To unify and coordinate the general educational program of the 
University of North Carolina as herein provided for. 

"3. To work out a scheme in which, and through which, all the pro- 
blems arising from the consolidation of the three existing institutions 
into the University of North Carolina may, in their opinion, be best solved. 

"4. That the final location of all schools, departments, and divisions 
of work now located at any of the three institutions shall be subject to 
the study and recommendations of the experts and the commission with- 
out prejudice by any provisions in this bill." 

In the discharge of its responsibilities as set forth in the act, the com- 
mission selected a survey committee consisting of the following: 

F. L. McVey, President of the University of Kentucky. 

G. S. Ford, Dean of the Graduate School, University of Minnesota. 
Geo. A. Works, chairman, Dean of Students and University Examiner, 

University of Chicago. 

12 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

The three institutions, the University of North Carolina, the North 
Carolina College of Agriculture and Engineering, and the North Carolina 
College for Women, have rendered distinctive service. Each institution 
in its own way has made valuable contributions to the welfare of the state. 

Each of the institutions furnished data on the enrollment as of Nov- 
ember 2, 1931. There were at Chapel Hill, 2,825 students; at Greens- 
boro, 1,437; and at Raleigh, 1,793; making a total of 6,055. The student 
body at Greensboro consists exclusively of women. At Chapel Hill, 
women are freely admitted above the junior college level, and to a limited 
degree in the freshman and sophomore years. There was a total of 246 
on the date enrollment statistics were collected. At Raleigh, 78 women 
were enrolled. 

The University 

The University was the first state university to be established in this 
country. Its charter was granted by the General Assembly in 1789. 
The cornerstone of Old East Building was laid in 1793, and the University 
was opened in 1795. Since that time the institution has been in con- 
tinuous operation except for a few years following the war between the 
states. It has furnished many men who have rendered distinctive service 
to the state, the nation, and the world-wide commonwealth of learning. 
One needs only to examine Bulletin 276 of the University, Research in 
Progress, to realize that scholarly research is a genuine interest of the 
institution. Furthermore, North Carolina is one of the three or four 
states of the South that have made a real contribution, through the de- 
velopment of a general extension service, to the life of the people. The 
institution has maintained high standards of teaching and reasearch and 
of service for citizens of the state who are unable to come to its campus 
for study. 

State College 

Nearly one hundred years elapsed after the origin of the University 
before another institution was established. This second institution was 
originally known as the North Carolina College of Agriculture and Me- 
chanic Arts. This name was changed in 1917 to the North Carolina 
State College of Agriculture and Engineering. Like other land-grant 
institutions, it has rendered material assistance to agriculture and to the 
industries of the state. Farming, a basic industry of North Carolina, 
has benefited greatly from the work of the agricultural experiment station. 
Under the stimulation of the Smith-Lever Extension Act much has been 
done toward the development of rural life both on the farm and in the 
home. Throughout the state, evidences can be found of the results of 
research and extension that have been carried on by North Carolina State 
College. In recent years, by the preparation of teachers of agriculture for 
the high schools and the training of county agricultural agents it has 
touched farm life closely. 

The School of Engineering and the Textile School have not had the 
stimulus of federal funds to lead them into the fields of research and ex- 
tension to the degree that has been reached in agriculture. As a result, 
their activities have been more largely confined to resident instruction, 
but not to the entire neglect of research and extension. 

Introduction 13 

The College for Women 

The North Carolina College for Women was established by the General 
Assembly of 1891 and received students in the autumn of 18 9 2. It was 
the first effort on the part of the state to make provision for the higher 
education of women. In its early days it was almost exclusively an insti- 
tution for the training of teachers. The original name, in fact, was the 
North Carolina State Normal and Industrial School. Even at the present 
time it is primarily a teacher-training institution, although the curriculm 
has been greatly broadened in recent years to increase the opportunities 
for general education for the women of the state. 

Through the cooperation of the alumnae office of the College the survey 
committee was able to obtain information regarding the activities entered 
upon immediately after graduation by the members of the classes from 
1922 to 1931 inclusive. The activities of these same persons were 
gathered for the current year. Reports were obtained from 94 percent 
of the persons who were graduated during the ten-year period. These 
show that approximately three-fourths of the students at the time of 
leaving college entered some type of teaching (Appendix A). There is 
but little change in the proportions during the past ten years except for 
a decline in 1931, probably due to the inability of some of the members of 
that class to secure teaching positions. At the time the data were col- 
lected, slightly more than one-half of those who had been graduated 
during the ten-year period were still teaching (Appendix B). The insti- 
tution in the main is well equipped to prepare teachers, and it would be 
difficult to overstate the contribution made to the state's welfare through 
this service. 

This brief statement regarding the founding of the three institutions 
under consideration makes it clear that two decisions regarding policies 
to be followed are the chief causes of the present conditions. The first 
of these was the decision to establish a separate land-grant college. This 
decision was made because of the unwillingness of the university to comply 
with the spirit of the Land-Grant College Act. The second decision was 
made later when the need for the higher education of women became 
imperative, and at that time those who were responsible for the guidance 
of higher education elected to have this new demand met by the establish- 
ment of a third institution. 

These decisions once having been made, the pressure for expansion of 
the institutions on the part of the communities in which they were located 
became an important factor in their development. In fact, in the case 
of the land-grant college local pressure was undoubtedly one of the causes 
that led to its establishment as a separate institution. As the costs of 
higher education have grown, the local character of many state-supported 
institutions has been the cause of real concern in a number of the other 
states as well as in North Carolina. In any efforts made to change the 
situation in North Carolina in a fundamental fashion, the results of this 
local pride are certain to be encountered. Local considerations, however, 
should be laid aside. Recognition should be given to the improvements in 
transportation and communication that have been made in the past 
generation. Cognizance should be taken of the tendency for the public- 
school system to expand upward through the junior-college period. Finally, 

14 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

the financial costs of maintaining good institutions of higher learing are 
great and may become greater. With these basic facts in mind, those 
interested in the welfare of North Carolina and especially in its program 
of higher education should be influenced in their decisions only by con- 
siderations which relate to the state as a whole. If the decisions made 
by the state are determined in the light of local conditions or pressures, 
the lapse of time is certain to accentuate the unfortunate elements in the 
present situation, with the result that the state will not achieve the great- 
est possible development of its program of higher education, and will be 
saddled with mounting costs due to a failure to make the state point of 
view dominant in this field. 

The problem the state now faces is to obtain such a degree of inte- 
gration of the work of these three institutions as will result in one great 
university tied closely to the life of the state through its teaching, ex- 
tension, and research. It is the high responsibility of this generation 
to grapple with the task. It will grow increasingly difficult if it is passed 
on to succeeding generations. The necessary changes should be made 
regardless of the effects they may have on the three institutions included 
in this survey. 

Through their years of service, each institution has naturally and 
properly developed a following. Allegiances have been formed by alumi, 
other former students, parents of students, trustees, and others who have 
had an opportunity to become acquainted with the work of the institu- 
tions. It will naturally be difficult for persons with pronounced insti- 
tutional loyalties to see eye to eye in all instances with a group such as 
the survey committee, who approached the questions involved without an 
institutional bias. The attachments of alumni are certain to be strong. 
This is right and proper. But in making decisions with reference to the 
university system contemplated in the legislation and in this report, insti- 
tutional loyalties should be subordinated to the welfare of the state. It 
is as citizens of North Carolina, not as adherents of one of its institutions, 
that graduates will be called on to act and to justify the special privileges 
they have enjoyed. 

The pages which follow record the deliberate judgment of the survey 
committee regarding the steps to be taken to weld the three institutions 
into a university organization that will contribute to the state's progress 
in a larger degree than would be practicable for three separate institu- 

Temporary and easy expedients should be set aside. The idea of 
trading one type of work in a given institution for some other type in 
another should not be tolerated. The only solutions alumni have any 
right to consider are those that in the long run will give the state, within 
the funds available, the strongest possible program of higher education. 
The state made possible the existence of their alma mater and now their 
obligation is to see that the state receives the maximum of return through 
dispassionate consideration of the future of higher education within its 
boundaries. The survey committee has no alternative but to submit a 
report which it believes to be fundamentally sound and of such character 
as will ultimately bring the maximum benefits to the state, rather than to 
temporize with conditions that are more immediate. 

Introduction 15 

In considering the recommendations which follow, it should be borne 
in mind that the survey committee has not thought of these as all going 
into immediate effect. A genuine unification of two or more institutions 
comes by growth. On one point, however, the committee is clear this 
growth in unity of spirit will come only as conditions are made favorable 
for its development. The survey committee, therefore, wishes to record 
its belief that certain important and radical immediate steps are necessary 
in order that faculty, students, and trustees shall begin thinking in state- 
wide terms and that the people of the state shall become accustomed to 
the idea that a great task has been undertaken, namely, the task of se- 
curing a spiritual union of three separate institutions in the new Univer- 
sity of North Carolina. 

Two major problems were before the committee: 

1. The problem of securing the type of administrative and educational 
organization that would be most likely to result in a great state university 
-- an institution worthy of a state that early learned to prize higher 

2. The problem of allocating particular functions among the three 
institutions on such basis as would give to the state the largest possible 
returns for its expenditure on higher education. 

In arriving at decisions regarding suggestions to be made, the survey 
committee has worked under a serious limitation in two respects. In 
the first place, the state has three teachers colleges for whites; although 
they are important elements in the program of higher education of the 
state, they were not included by the legislature in the survey. In the 
second place, the State Department of Education, which is in certain 
respects intimately connected with the development of state-supported 
higher education, was also omitted by the legislature from the survey. 
Conferences were held by representatives of the survey committee with 
persons from each of these institutions, but these conferences were inci- 
dental and not with the idea that the institutions and their activities were 
to be canvassed as an integral part of the study. 

At the first conference which the chairman of the survey committee 
had with the commission on university consolidation, action was taken 
giving the committee complete freedom for its study and report. This 
condition has obtained throughout the study. Furthermore, it should 
be recorded that on the part of each institution there has been full and 
complete cooperation from faculty and administrative officers. The 
collection of information needed by the committee and the conferences 
necessary have thrown an extra burden on these persons in a period which, 
owing to financial conditions, was a trying one. 

The survey committee has had the services of the following individuals 
in the study: 

Adult education: Morse A. Cartwright, Executive Director of the 
American Association for Adult Education. 

Business education: R. A. Stevenson, Dean of the School of Business 
Administration, University of Minnesota. 

Education for women: C. Mildred Thompson, Dean of Vassar College. 

Engineering education: W. E. Wickenden, President of Case School of 
Applied Science. 

16 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

Training of teachers: C. H. Judd, Dean of the School of Education. 
University of Chicago, and W. S. Gray, Director of Teacher Training, 
University of Chicago. 

The reports prepared by these specialists are incorporated in this re- 
port with such modifications as were necessary to coordinate them with 
the general report of the survey committee. 

On the basis of these reports and its own study of conditions, the 
survey committee prepared an outline of tentative proposals involved in 
the consolidation. These proposals were then discussed in a conference 
attended by the members of the committee and the following persons who 
had not previously participated in the study: 

L. D. Coffman, President of the University of Minnesota, and member 
of the survey commissions of Texas, Kansas, and New Jersey. 

E. C. Elliott, President of Purdue University, formely Chancellor of 
the University of Montana. 

F. J. Kelly, United States Office of Education. 

Henry Suzzallo, President of Carnegie Foundation, Chairman of the 
California Survey Commission. 

Geo. F. Zook, President of Akron University, formerly specialist on 
higher education of the United States Office of Education, and director of 
several state surveys. 

The reports of the special investigators and the results of the dis- 
cussions have been used in the formulation of the report, but the survey 
committee must take the responsibility for the present form of this report. 



In planning for the the new University of North Carolina, one of the 
most important considerations is to secure on the part of faculty, trustees, 
and administrative officers a realization that for the first time in the history 
of the state a single publicly supported higher institution of learning has 
been projected, to serve, within the limitations appropriate to higher 
education, the white population of the state without reference to sex or 
occupation. Each of the three institutions now combined worked with 
certain limitations with respect to these factors when it was independently 
organized. Any branch of the University organization will still have 
limitations, but the new University as a whole will be limited in its service 
only by the resources the state puts at its disposal. The transition from 
a local to a state point of view, from the old institutional to the new 
institutional outlook, from the interests of groups to the interests of all, 
will not be easy. It is, therefore, highly important that administrative 
provisions be made for keeping the state-wide outlook dominant. 

Board of Trustees 

The legislation provides for a Board of Trustees of one hundred to be 
chosen by the legislature, with the Governor and the State Superintendent 
of Public Instruction as ex officio members. Boards of this size have in 
general proved so unwieldly that the results were not satisfactory. True, 
the University and the State College have both had large boards with 
results apparently satisfactory. In this new University, however, it must 
be borne in mind that until a real integration of the three branches is 
achieved, there is danger that old loyalties will conceal larger issues. In 
the opinion of the survey committee, a small board - eight to ten members 
- is to be preferred to one of the size provided in the Act. If, however, 
it does not appear to be practicable to change to a small board, it is sug- 
gested that the policy followed in the past by the boards of the State 
College and the University be followed, viz., that of creating an Executive 
Committee and giving it large powers. 

The survey committee makes the following recommendations bearing 
on this suggested Executive Committee: 

1. That the Board of Trustees select in such manner as it deems best 
an Executive Committee of eight members. As members of the Board 
are chosen for eight-year periods, it will be possible to have an executive 
committee so organized that normally the terms of two members would 
expire every other year. It is highly important for the periods of service 
to be of sufficient duration so that a member has an opportunity to become 
thoroughly acquainted with the University system long before the end of 
his term. Likewise, it is undesirable to have changes in a large per- 
centage of the membership at one time. The suggested plan of stag- 
gering the appointments would meet this situation. 

2. That the Executive Committee be given large powers by the Board. 
It should pass on appointments, budgets, and allocation of faculty and 

18 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

staff, subject to recommendation by the President. This Committee 
should also make such rules and regulations as may be necessary for the 
government and the successful administration of the University system. 

3. That none of the ex officio members of the Board of Trustees serve 
on the Executive Committee. A report 1 recently approved by the National 
Association of State Universities covers this phase so well that it is quoted 

The custom of having ex officio members of Board of 
Trustees or Regents fortunately has not prevailed very 
widely. The theory is thoroughly unsound, the practice 
is even worse. In the first place, these people are irreg- 
ular in their attendance and always limited in their infor- 
mation. In the second place, any conscientious man in 
such a position would recognize his limitations and be em- 
barrassed by attempting leadership. Acquaintance with 
the important policies of a modern state university requires 
years of experience and definite application to their study. 
This is fundamentally why members of such Boards should 
have a long tenure of office. In the third place, an ex 
officio member is subject to the change of political motives 
and of having a status somewhat different from the status 
of a regularly appointed or elected Trustee. It is not good 
administration to have two different classes of memberships 
in a Board dealing with a permanent institution and espec- 
ially so when these ex officio members are temporary in 
their relation. 

An additional point worthy of note is that frequently an ex officio 
member in the discharge of his official duties is called upon to take a stand 
regarding questions upon which he has already passed as a member of the 
Executive Committee. Both he and his associates, if he were on the 
Executive Committee, would at times be embarrassed by this. The 
University is entitled to the consideration of men who are single minded 
to its interests alone. 

Educational Leadership 

The educational leadership of the new University is an important 
consideration. To this question the survey committee has given serious 
study. As a result of its deliberations, the following recommendations 
are made: 

1. The educational leadership should center in a single individual 
responsible to the Board of Trustees on one hand and to the Faculty of 
the University system on the other. The title of President is suggested 
for this position. Needless to say, the choice of this individual is a vital 
matter. One readily sees he must be a man of broad vision and of fine 
courage, with a keen sense of justice and withall, human. He will find 
it necessary in the early years of the new University, in season and out, 
to insist that the state's needs are to be the first consideration. Petty 
jealousies, local pride, institutional rivalry must all be subordinated to the 

i Report of Committee on University Control, 1931. 

Administrative and Educational Organization 19 

development of a new University great enough to encompass all the larger 
needs of the state. 

2. The office of the President should have such an organization as 
experience may prove necessary in order to coordinate the activities of the 
new University. The survey committee forecasts one position in this office. 
There should be a University comptroller appointed on the recommenda- 
tion of the President and responsible to him. The new University will 
one budget. It will be nessary to have an official to administer this 
budget and to supervise expenditures subject to direction from the Presi- 
dent. The relationship between finance and the educational policy of a 
university is intimate. The control of expenditures is so closely identified 
with the life of the institution that the comptroller should be responsible 
to the President. No other arrangement will prove satisfactory over 
any considerable period of time. In the opinion of the survey committee 
this would be a step looking toward economical administration. 

In this connection it should be pointed out that a grave danger exists 
in North Carolina lest the encroachments of the State Budget Bureau so 
tie the hands of educational authorities that they will have but little 
voice in the determination of policies for the University system. No one 
would gainsay the right of the General Assembly to fix the amount to be 
made available for higher education for a given biennium. However, 
having taken that action, it should give those who are responsible for the 
new University the maximum degree of latitude in determining how the 
expenditures are to be made within the budget. If the administration 
of the University system is not competent or dependable in this respect, 
the state should change it rather than transfer the authority to an officer 
who is far removed both in location and in experience from the problems 

The survey committee is also of the opinion that it will be desirable 
to make provisions for a central direction of Extension, the Graduate 
School, and the Summer Session. 

Administrative Council 

3. The President should have an Administrative Council whose 
members are chosen for one year at a time, consisting of the following: 

a. One member to be chosen by the faculty of each branch 
of the institution, i. e., Raleigh. 1 Greensboro, and Chapel 

b. The Vice-President of each branch of the new University. 2 

c. Nine members to be appointed by the President with due 

regard to the size of student body, number of depart- 
ments, and size of faculty of each of the three branches. 

d. The President should be chairman of this Council. 

This Council should have the responsibilitites ordinarily carried by 
such bodies in universities. It will serve as a body in which administra- 
tive policies and procedures will be considered from the viewpoint of the 
whole University system. 

Provision should be made for a University Senate having as members 
all persons with the rank of assistant professor or higher. The size of 

20 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation " .. ' " 

this body and the distances will preclude frequent meetings. It should 
be the deliberative and legislative body in questions of educational policy 
affecting the University organization as a whole, e.g., entrance require- 
ments, graduation requirements, etc. The Senate as a body should have 
the privilege of approach to the Executive Committee of the board of 
Trustees if circumstances make such action desirable. If committees are 
appointed to deal with minor questions, it will not be necessary for the 
Senate as a body to meet more than two or three times a year. The 
President should preside over its meetings. Actions of the Senate on 
questions affecting major policies would be subject to approval by the 
Board of Trustees. 

Organization at Each Branch 

It will be necessary to provide for some administrative organization at 
each of the branches of the new University. These organizations should be 
kept as simple as is practicable, consistent with the demands of the local 
situation. The survey committees makes the following recommendations: 

1. The chief administrative officer at a branch of the University system 
should be known as a Vice-President. 

2. Local educational and business authorities should be responsible to 
the President through the office of the appropriate Vice-President. 

The preceding discussions have included frequent reference to the need 
for the development and maintenance of a state-wide point of view regarding 
the types of work to be undertaken at the different branches of the University 
system. This breadth of view should extend beyond the office of the Presi- 
dent. The sooner it permeates the thinking of the several branches of the 
University system, the better it will be for the institution and for the state. 
The Administrative Council and the University Senate should serve valuable 
purposes in this connection. 

The University Senate will provide means for the consideration of the 
major questions of educational policy affecting the University system. In 
the Administrative Council, problems of administrative policy and procedure 
will be discussed. Final readjustments in the work of the branches of the 
University system and their relationship to one another would naturally be 
made by the President, subject to the Executive Committee of the Board of 
Trustees. In the opinion of the survey committee, this relatively simple 
organization will be adequate for administrative purposes. It has purposely 
been sketched only in outline. It is much better to let the details grow out 
of experience than to attempt to predict them in advance. It is important 
that the organization be flexible enough to permit faculty and administrative 
officers to adapt it to the needs of the new University as it develops. 

1 Subject to the recommendations made later in the report. 

2 See the discussion under Organization at Each Branch. 



One of the tasks set the survey committee was to recommend a division 
of the work among the branches of the new University. As a background 
for the changes proposed, the units for instruction, research, and extension 
in operation in each institution at the time of the study are given. They 
were as follows: 

1. The North Carolina College for Women 

a. The College of Liberal Arts (including library science) 

b. The School of Education 

c. The School of Music 

d. The School of Home Economics 

e. The Commercial Department 

f. The Extension Division 

g. The Summer Session 
h. The Graduate Division 

(A curriculum in library science is integrated with the program of 
the College of Liberal Arts.) 

2. North Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engineering 

a. The School of Agriculture (including forestry and the Experiment 

b. The School of Education 

c. The School of Engineering 

d. The School of Science and Business 

e. The Textile School 

f. College Extension 

g. The Summer School 

(The College at one time had a Graduate School. This was recently 
discontinued although the work continues under another plan.) 

3. The University of North Carolina 

a. The School of Liberal Arts 

b. The School of Applied Science (engineering) 

c. The School of Education 

d. The School of Commerce 

e. The School of Public Welfare 

f. The Graduate School 

g. The Summer School 

h. The Extension Division 
i. The School of Law 

j. The School of Medicine (two-year curriculum) 
k. The School of Pharmacy 
1. The Graduate Library School 

(There are two other units of importance from the viewpoints of 
research and publication. Those are the Institute' for Research 
in Social Science, and the University Press.) 

22 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 


The preceding statements show the existence of certain duplications of 
work and arouse a lively apprehension as to what may happen in the future. 
There is a School of Engineering at Raleigh and also one at Chapel Hill. 
The same is the case in business and commerce. The College for Women 
has a course for the training of librarians, and there is also provision for 
the training of librarians at Chapel Hill. Each branch has a School of 
Education, and each maintains a program of general extension activities 
aside from the extension work in agriculture and home economics which 
centers at Raleigh. This is the type of duplication regarding which question 
may properly be raised. Is it necessary? 

Such subjects as English, history, mathematics, etc. are taught at each 
place. Obviously, it is necessary to have instruction in the elementary 
phases of these subjects at each center. This is a form of duplication that 
is inescapable as long as the University system maintains three branches. 
Duplication of instruction at the elementary level, in institutions of the size 
included in this study, is not so expensive as at higher levels, because classes 
are usually of sufficient size to keep instructional costs lower than is possible 
in the more advanced phases of a subject. However, the results of recent 
studies demonstrating that large group instruction is apparently as efficient 
as small group instruction make one reluctant to make even so guarded a 
statement. At the higher levels the increased instructional costs resulting 
from small classes become more obvious. Data collected on size of classes 
in the three institutions show clearly that the instructional costs in the 
last two years of college and at the graduate level are higher than would 
be necessary if the three institutions were on one campus. 

The survey committee has confined itself primarily to what it considered 
major duplications and to those which were deemed unnecessary, although 
in its recommendations it has been influenced by the type of duplications 
first discussed. The acceptance of the recommendations made in this report 
will provide the necessary administrative organizations for eliminating the 
minor duplications or reducing them to a minimum as long as the same type 
of work is continued at more than one center. This same organization will 
make possible a mobility of teachers and students among the branches that 
has not obtained in the past. This mobility will further minimize unneces- 
sary expense in the new University. 

Major Recommendations Affecting Allocation of Work 

The survey committee has two major suggestions to make affecting the 
work of the branches of the University organization. They are: 

1. The transfer of State College from Raleigh to Chapel Hill. In 
making this transfer, it may perhaps be wise to make provision for leaving 
a program of general education carried through the junior-college level at 
Raleigh. Whether this should be entirely state supported or maintained by 
a combination of state and local support should be determined by the state's 
future policy regarding the maintenance of publicly supported junior colleges. 

2. The transfer from Greensboro to Chapel Hill of the forms of pro- 
fessional and specialized training that are now found at Greensboro. In the 
recommendations which follow, exceptions to this general rule are made in 

Allocation of Functions 23 

the case of the professional training of teachers and of the work in secre- 
tarial science. The state should adhere in the future to the policy of locating 
at Chapel Hill such new types of specialized and professional training as 
are a part of the University system. 

The survey committee believes these solutions offer the greatest promise 
of making the new University most useful to the state with the minimum 
expense. Not to give frank expression to this conviction would be most 
unfair to the state. 

Transfers from Raleigh to Chapel Hill: These suggestions will be 
considered in turn. The relation between engineering on the one hand and 
the basic sciences, such as physics, chemistry, and biology, mathematics, and 
increasingly the social sciences, on the other is so intimate that no outstand- 
ing school of engineering can be developed independently of them. The 
contacts with business and educational leaders convinced the committee that 
they believe the state desires a School of Engineering which will compare 
favorably with the better schools of the country. Such a school can be 
developed only at an institution in which the work in basic sciences is better 
developed than it now is at Raleigh. The argument made for the intimate 
relationship between engineering and the sciences is equally valid for agri- 
culture. The strongest colleges of engineering and agriculture can not be 
developed independently of strong departments in the basic sciences, math- 
ematics, and economics. 

Other Solutions Considered 

The survey committee gave consideration to other plans short of the 
above possible solution. The most obvious suggestion would be to transfer 
engineering to Raleigh, and business and commerce to Chapel Hill. This 
would, however, call for two important changes: 

1. The development of the expensive departments of physics, chemistry, 
biology, and mathematics to the level approximated now at Chapel Hill but 
not now at Raleigh. This could be done over a period of years but only at a 
very considerable expense in laboratories, library, and staff. 

2. The reduction of the work in the sciences at Chapel Hill to the 
junior-college level and the division of graduate work between the two 

In the opinion of the survey committee, the state does not now have, 
nor is it likely to have, the resources with which to maintain year after year 
two centers for high-grade research and instruction at the upper levels in 

If the proposal to develop strong science departments at Raleigh were 
accepted, it would mean an institution at Chapel Hill concerned with in- 
struction in all general fields through the junior-college period, and above 
that level concerned alone with the humanities and the social sciences and 
their applications. At Raleigh, the branch would offer instruction in the 
general fields through the junior-college period, and above that level instruc- 
tion would be devoted to work in the basic sciences and their applications. 
This arrangement would also call for the transfer of the School of Medcine 
to Raleigh, for medicine is the application of biology, chemistry, and other 
sciences to human health and care, not to be wisely divorced from them. 

24 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

The rejection of this proposal in favor of the one recommended, by which 
engineering and agriculture would be transferred to Chapel Hill, was due 
to the belief on the part of the committee that the separation of the sciences 
and their application from the humanities and social sciences would be 
unfortunate from an educational viewpoint. Certain values are gained from 
the intimate mingling of students and faculties from the two groups, that 
are lost even when the distance is no greater than the thirty miles which 
separate Raleigh and Chapel Hill. The committee was so firmly of this 
opinion that it felt confident that an attempt to transfer the basic sciences 
to Raleigh would commit the state to a great expense with results that 
would not be satisfactory. That state is fortunate whose future lawyers, 
doctors, engineers, bankers, industrialists, and leaders in agriculture are 
brought together on one campus in their period of training and share the 
same social and educational opportunities. For those who in the future will 
demand new curriculums drawn from all fields, training for careers we can 
not anticipate, it is vital that every facility the state can afford be mobilized 
at one center. 

A third solution was also considered. This was the transfer of engi- 
neering only from Raleigh to Chapel Hill, and the retention of a program 
of general education through the junior-college period and the further de- 
velopment of agriculture, forestry, and a division of industries at Raleigh. 
A beginning in this last field has already been made through the work in 
ceramics and textiles. Both these subjects offer much larger possibilties 
than have thus far been realized. There are other industries as yet un- 
developed. The rejection of this plan by the survey committee was due to 
the need for good instruction in science in connection with agriculture, and 
to a degree in connection with the type of instruction proposed in the 

The survey committee is fully aware that its proposals, if accepted 
in full, would not effect all the hoped-for economies, but it doubts whether 
any plan short of the abolition of certain schools or departments at all three 
centers would result in any considerable immediate economy. Such a with- 
drawal from ground already occupied, in response to state needs, can be 
executed only by state action. A move as drastic as this could not be advised 
by a committee from outside the state. The relative values placed on these 
schools and departments is a question that can be answered only by the 
people of the state. 

Transfer Should Be Gradual 

The work in business and commerce should gradually be removed from 
Raleigh by not admitting freshmen to this department after the academic 
year 1931-32. The training of teachers in academic subjects could be elim- 
inated by not admitting students to them in the junior year after 1931-32. 
The work in teacher preparation at State College would thus be limited to 
agriculture and the industrial arts. These two changes would effect some 
minor economies, and they might well be made without reference to the 
larger plan. 

When the state resources will permit the erection of new buildings, the 
first funds should be spent on the development of the engineering plant at 
Chapel Hill with the idea of transferring the engineering work. Agriculture 
could follow and later the work in industries, leaving only a general junior 

Allocation of Functions 25 

college at Raleigh, as the survey committee has recommended. The loss to 
the state as a result of the abandonment of the buildings at Raleigh would 
be small indeed as compared with the cost of replacements and additions 
at Raleigh and the increased cost of maintenance over a period of twenty or 
twenty-five years, resulting from a decision to maintain two separate insti- 
tutions of excellence. Furthermore, the single institution would be, from 
an educational standpoint, more satisfactory than two separate units. 

The decision to advise the physical consolidation of these two branches 
has been reached only after careful consideration It is recommended with 
confidence that if the people of the state face the issue squarely and make the 
change suggested, they will have rendered a servic to the state which in the 
course of time will be of almost immeasurable value from an educational 
viewpoint and which will ultimately mean a large financial saving. 

Transfers From Greensboro to Chapel Hill 

The second major suggestion deals with the transfer of specialized types 
of training from the branch of the University at Greensboro to Chapel Hill. 

Training of Librarians 

Provision has been made for the training of librarians both at the North 
Carolina College for Women and at the University. In the College for 
Women the training is given in the senior year. At the University the 
instruction is at the graduate level during the regular academic year, but 
during the summer, work is given at the undergraduate level. The work at 
Greensboro is designed exclusively for school librarians, and at Chapel Hill 
the instructions is planned to train personnel for school, college, and public 

Courses were first offered in library science at Chapel Hill in the 
Summer School of 1904. That same year some instruction was developed 
for the student assistants in the library. About 1920 the instruction in 
library science offered in the summer school was adapted to the needs of 
school librarians. Finally, in 1931, the Graduate Library School was opened. 
The program of instruction in this field was developed a year or two earlier 
at Greensboro than at Chapel Hill. 

During the first term of the summer of 1931, 140 students were enrolled 
in library science at Chapel Hill, and 29 during the first term at Greensboro. 
No work was offered at Greensboro during the second term. The enrollment 
at Greensboro at the time of the survey was 22 and at Chapel Hill 35. The 
budgets at Chapel Hill for the current year are: summer school, $2,200.00; 
acadamic year, $18,000.00. At Greensboro the corresponding figures are 
$292.50 and $4,400.00. 

The survey committee is of the opinion that the instruction in library 
science at Greensboro should be dropped at the end of this year. This 
recommendation is based on the following considerations: 

1. Evidence does not indicate that need for more than one center. A 
large proportion of the persons preparing for school library work will do 
so through the summer schools; and if the branch of the University system 
at Chapel Hill offers instruction in both terms of the Summer School, the 
saturation point will soon be reached as far as school librarians are con- 

26 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

cerned. If there should prove to be need for additional persons, members 
of the staff from the School at Chapel Hill could offer six or eight semester 
hours of work for school librarians to students during their senior year at 

2. The committee is led to the location of the work at Chapel Hill 
rather than at Greensboro for the following reasons: 

a. The bibliographical resources at the former place are much better 
than they are at Greensboro. For some time prior to the estab- 
lishment of the School at the University, the authorities had been 
planning for the School and were collecting the needed resources. 

b. A new library building has recently been completed at Chapel 
Hill with ample space for the School and for library purposes. 
At Greensboro the library is somewhat small for the student body 
and the space used for instruction in library science is needed for 
general library purposes. 

The saving would not be great if this change were made, as the amount 
expended for library training at Greensboro is not great. The change should 
be made primarily on the basis of the better quality of work that can be done 
at Chapel Hill, owing to the superior quality of its facilities and the better 
training of the instructional staff. The present staff at Chapel Hill would 
be able to handle 50 students. 

The survey committee's recommendations regarding the training of 
librarians are based on the assumption that a school of library science is to 
be maintained by the state. The committee believes the question of the 
development of such a school, in view of present conditions, may well have 
further consideration before the question is considered closed. 

The suggestion regarding the transfer of the work in library science is 
indicative of a movement that in the opinion of the survey committee should 
be carried forward as rapidly as resources will permit, viz., the transfer 
from Greensboro to Chapel Hill of all forms of specialized preparation except 
the training of teachers and the work in secretarial science. Work in the 
fine arts should be developed, and the state can not afford more than one 
center for this purpose. The proper place is Chapel Hill. The acceptance 
of this plan would result in the limitation of the work in music at Greens- 
boro to the training of public-school teachers of music and such work as is 
properly a part of a program of general education. Professional musicians 
would not be trained. The school would be changed to a department and 
the work in this field would become a part of the program of work in the 
College of Liberal Arts. 

The professional work in home economics above the junior-college level 
should be transferred from Greensboro to Chapel Hill as soon as practicable. 
The argument for this transfer parallels that used in the case of agriculture 
and engineering — the large applications of the basic sciences, economics, and 
sociology to instruction and research in this field. The tendency in recent 
years to devote a considerable portion of the junior-college period in home 
economics to general education makes this suggestion readily practicable. 

The place that the College at Greensboro is finally to occupy in the 
program of teacher training must await the state's decision regarding the 
allocation of functions among the teachers colleges. The data already sub- 

Allocation of Functions 27 

mitted justify the statement that at the moment it is primarily a teacher- 
training institution. 

During the past generation, higher education has assumed large propor- 
tions in our living. Daily the instruction of the classroom and the work 
done in the laboratory and library are directly and indirectly vitalizing 
human affairs. So real are the benefits arising from great universities that 
society annually places great sums of money at their disposal. The growth 
of these institutions has made evident the intimate relationship between the 
different fields of knowledge. The value of physical proximity is shown by 
the tendency for certain types of professional education which formerly 
were offered by independent schools to move into universities. Constantly 
the values flowing from the development of a university with its professional 
schools, graduate instruction, and research on the same campus are becoming 
more evident. This close relationship gives a stimulation to teachers and 
students that is lost when the several schools represented in a university are 
even no farther apart than are the branches of the new University. The con- 
fidence of the survey committee that a university of the type just described 
is what the State of North Carolina wants and what it will in the long run 
find most useful, is the basis for the suggestion for the transfer of such 
important schools as agriculture, engineering, and commerce from Raleigh 
to Chapel Hill and for the transfer of professional or specialized education 
from Greensboro to Chapel Hill. 

Suggested Changes Calling for Minor Readjustments 

Training of Teachers: The abandonment of the training of elementary- 
school teachers at Chapel Hill is recommended. For the present, it is sug- 
gested that this training be continued at Greensboro. The opportunities for 
instruction in the liberal arts to the level of the bachelor's degree should 
gradually be improved at Greensboro, but in the judgment of the survey 
committee such instruction should not be carried above that level. 

There is not in North Carolina or in the immediate vicinity a center 
for the training of commercial teachers as they should be prepared for 
service in the high school. Representatives of the State Department of 
Public Instruction informed the survey committee that teachers were ob- 
tained only with difficulty. This work should be developed at Greensboro in 
conjunction with the work in secretarial science, which should also be 
expanded. The chapter dealing with commerce and business contains a 
discussion of this phase. 

The Graduate School: In the organization of research work and the 
training of graduate students there is fortunately no problem of allocating 
functions among the three units now combined in the new University of 
North Carolina. It is in research and teaching on the graduate level that 
the new institution finds its opportunity to justify itself as a university in 
the true sense of that word. These activities will demand all the surplus 
resources of the University over and above the obligations of college teaching. 

The unit known as the Graduate School is simply a body of specially 
selected and qualified teachers and students applying themselves in freedom 
and with the necessary library, laboratory, and field resources to the prob- 
lems that challenge them. Any organization that forwards and supports 
this cooperation between elder and younger scholar, between teacher and 

28 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

student, must of necessity be simple. Complexity and administrative routines 
are foreign to the life of a graduate school and stifle its spirit. 

The University organization for central direction of activities under the 
President should provide for a Dean of graduate work. Upon this official of 
the new University and his attitudes, and the breadth of his conception of 
research, and the soundness of his standards, and his impersonal courage in 
upholding such standards, rests a large measure of the success of research 
and scholarship in the University system. No one who believes that the 
profitable fields for research are today what they were when Johns Hopkins 
was founded, can properly serve as dean of the graduate school in a modern 
university whether privately endowed or state supported. The maintenance 
and development of scholarship requires something more than a static faith 
that the traditional departments compass all fields of study and research. 
Placed as the Graduate School necessarily is at the very center of the new 
organization, and integrating many departments, any cocksureness in its 
Dean as to what fields are or are not open to research and rewarding to 
scholarly effort would be fatal. 

The setting of standards in a graduate school depends upon the main- 
tenance of a sound selective process among those on the faculty who, by 
reason of their productive scholarship or teaching power at the graduate 
level, are to be placed in charge of a body of students admitted by selective 
standards. Even given qualified teachers and students in one field, there 
can be no claim to do graduate work unless there are also the resources to 
work with and the supporting departments in allied fields. No science or 
field of specialization is sufficient unto itself in these days when boundaries 
in all fields of scholarly work are but the dead furrows between once existing 
divisions. The field and strip system in education is giving way at every 
level, and nowhere more than in the higher reaches. 

It is in decisions, policies, and adjustments, conditioned by the principles 
set forth above, that the administration of the Graduate School will find a 
primary and persisting task. In meeting the problems it poses, the Dean 
will need the aid of the scholars who really make any graduate school. By 
some plan suited to the situation he should gather around him a small 
advisory or executive council of seven or eight men who are free from 
prepossessions about colleges and departments as they now exist. With 
their aid, the graduate teaching faculty can be selected and gradually ex- 
tended. Serving as leader, the Dean can become the proponent and executive 
of the educational policies and conditions for degrees that such a faculty is 
able and willing to maintain. 

Conditions are propitious for uniting such a qualified staff on these 
common problems. The Graduate School at Chapel Hill has been sound 
enough and conservative enough in maintaining its standards for the highest 
degree, that of doctor of philosophy, so that the University of North Carolina 
has gained membership in the Association of American Universities, a 
national body composed of those state and endowed universities setting and 
maintaining standards in graduate work. The other two campuses have 
recognized that the master's degree represents the most advanced training 
that they should undertake. This degree they have given in some fields not 
now represented at Chapel Hill. 

Allocation of Functions 29 

Under the form of consolidation recommended by the committee or under 
any considered by it, the center of gravity and the responsibility for the 
development of the Graduate School will be at Chapel Hill. During any 
transition period, it will be possible under central control to mobilize the 
personnel and facilities for this most expensive and yet most important 
form of training. Under no form of organization is it justifiable to consider 
the duplication of faculty and facilities for the sake of building up anything 
extraneous to the completely unified Graduate School. 

In the opinion of your committee, a consolidated educational program 
will come with the least effort at the graduate-school level. The service to 
be rendered is exceptionally valuable. The realization of such a program 
will give a new dignity to scholars and scholarship, quicken all intellectual 
life, widen horizons, and stimulate more vital teaching for the students on 
the undergraduate level as well as the graduate. It offers a new opportunity 
to demonstrate the educational leadership that the state has assumed and 
justified in its section and in the nation in the twentieth century. 

The survey committee has recognized the fact that it will not be prac- 
ticable to make all the suggested transfers immediately. In the interim 
there are some economies that the unification of control which has been 
recommended will make readily practicable. Some of these suggestions 
would apply as between Chapel Hill and Greensboro even after the recom- 
mended changes have been effected in entirety. A distinguished teacher 
could teach at more than one place. It would not be difficult for a member 
of the Chapel Hill branch to teach at that place and also at either Greensboro, 
or Raleigh or vice, versa. Between Raleigh and Chapel Hill, it would be 
practicable to transfer small classes when the facilities were better at one 
place than they were at the other. This would also be true in the case of 
Greensboro and Chapel Hill. Small classes dealing with the advanced phases 
of the same subjects were found at each of these centers. Transportation of 
students would be cheaper in some of these cases than would duplication of 

An illustration of the possibility that mobility of students and faculty 
would prove advantageous is furnished by the Department of Rural Social 
Economics, which is located at Chapel Hill. This Department was estab- 
lished in 1914, before the State College had turned its attention to this 
important field. Edward Kidder Graham, who was president at the time the 
Department was established, stated its purposes in the following words: 
"Its business is to teach North Carolina to North Carolinians; not the North 
Carolina of day-before-yesterday, but the North Carolina of day-after-tomor- 
row." The studies conducted by the Department and its teaching have had 
a marked influence in the state. Parenthetically, it may be stated that the 
survey committee has found one of the publications of this Department very 
helpful. The book is North Carolina: Economic and Social, by Samuel 
Huntington Hobbs, Jr. 

More recently the State College has entered the field of agricultural 
economics, in which a modest but sound program is being developed. At 
one time considerable attention was given to rural sociology, but temporarily 
that work is in abeyance. Both rural economics and rural sociology are 
properly a part of the program of the State College of Agriculture and 
Engineering. Since the work in rural social economics is so well developed 

30 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

at Chapel Hill, and the lihrary resources are there, the survey committee is 
of the opinion that instead of this work being moved to Raleigh, a coordina- 
tion of teaching and research should be effected so that students at each 
center will have the advantages offered by instructors at both places until 
such time as the School of Agriculture is transferred to Chapel Hill. The 
number of advanced students in this field is small enough so that they could 
be transported from one center to the other. In the more elementary phases 
of the work, where classes are larger, an instructor could teach at both 
Raleigh and Chapel Hill. The coordination of the research activities would 
undoubtedly mean a larger return to the state than if each place were to 
work independently. 

The discussion of this procedure has been developed as illustrative of what 
may be done in other areas. The authorities of the new University will 
undoubtedly find many opportunities for improving the quality of instruc- 
tion and increasing the fruitfulness of research by a closer coordination than 
has been developed while the three institutions were under separate admin- 

In evaluating recommendations that have been made, it should be borne 
in mind that the branch of the University at Chapel Hill has for years been 
building up a strong library. It is one of the outstanding university libraries 
of the South. At least two decades ago, the present librarian realized the 
importance of a great library to a university, and with faculty cooperation 
he began the development of a library that is now a source of great strength 
to the work at Chapel Hill. There are now 236,162 volumes, of which 41,432 
are bound periodicals. Among its resources are strong collections in chem- 
istry, zoology, and botany. At Raleigh, on the other hand, until recent years 
the library has had scant consideration. In 1930 there were only 29,023 
volumes and no collection of note. 

Units of the Proposed University 

The changes proposed would result in a University system composed of 
the following units: 

1. Branch at Greensboro 

a. The Junior College 

b. The Senior College 

c. The Summer Session 1 

d. The Extension Department 1 

The branch at Greensboro, in addition to having certain specialized 
phases of its work transferred to Chapel Hill, should adopt a simplified 
organization by making such subjects as music, secretarial science, and edu- 
cation, departments instead of schools as is the case in music and education 
at present. 

2. Branch at Raleigh 

a. The Junior College 
(Whether this would remain a part of the University system or become a 
part of the public-school system would depend upon the policy pursued in 
North Carolina regarding the development of publicly supported junior 
colleges. The survey committee is of the opinion that the tendency is for 

Allocation of Functions 31 

the junior college to develop as a part of the local school system. No state- 
ment in this report should be interpreted as being in opposition to that 

3. Branch at Chapel Hill 

a. The Junior College 

b. The Senior College 

c. The School of Engineering 

d. The Department of Education 

e. The School of Commerce 

f. The School of Public Welfare 

g. The Graduate School 

h. The School of Agriculture and Forestry 

i. The School of Industries 

j. The School of Law 

k. The School of Medicine 

(It is within the range of possibility that conditions might change to such 
a degree that it would be considered desirable to abandon the School of 
Medicine by the time the developments indicated above were effected.) 

1. The School of Pharmacy 

m. The Graduate Library School 

n. The School of Fine Arts 

o. The School of Home Economics 

p. The Summer School 1 

q. The Extension Department. 1 

1 The University system should have only one Division of Extension and one Summer School. 

and these should be regarded only as units in the whole plan. 
1 The University system should have only one Division of Extension and one Summer School. 



There are many questions of importance, with regard to the programs 
of higher education that have been developed in North Carolina, to which 
no attention has been given in this report. Questions of faculty training, 
salaries, teaching load, student personnel work, organization of the several 
institutions, admission requirements, fine arts, physical education, athletics, 
retirement provisions, etc. have not thus far been specifically discussed. 

The majority of them will not be treated. The survey committee gath- 
ered infomation on many of these questions which was used in the formula- 
tion of this report. Comparative data were collected on salaries, teaching 
load, and preparation of faculty members. Differences were found, but they 
were not marked enough to constitute serious obstacles in the organization 
of the new University. Omission of these data has been deliberate. The 
survey committee was of the opinion that it was important to keep the real 
issues — the problems presented in the preceding chapters — clearly to the 
fore. Had the report dealt with the entire range of questions suggested, 
there would have been danger of concealing the more fundamental questions 
faced by the state in the future development of its program of higher 
education. In this final chapter, however, a few questions of minor im- 
portance are briefly presented. 


Each institution furnished the survey committee with a statement of 
fees charged students. Great variation exists. It is recommended that as 
high a degree of uniformity be provided as is practicable. There seems 
to be no reason for a greater variation in fees in the new University than 
would obtain if there had been in the past an actual consolidation of the 
branches on one campus. The same statement holds regarding admission 

In connection with the question of fees, the committee wishes to call 
attention to the present legislation by which prospective teachers are not 
required to pay tuition. This legislation should be repealed. The committee 
is unable to discover any elements in the present situation to justify the 
continuance of the present practice. Furthermore, when a state faces as 
difficult a financial situation as exists in North Carolina at present, it may 
properly use this change of practice as a source of increased income. The 
increase in funds resulting from the repeal of this legislation would 
materially help the new University to maintain standards through this 
period of depression, as well as assist it in the realization of its larger 
purposes when there is an abatement of the present financial conditions. 

School of Medicine 

At Chapel Hill there is a two-year medical school enrolling about eighty 
students and costing approximately $53,000 a year. A few miles away is 
Duke University with a four-year medical school. Naturally a question 
arises regarding the wisdom of the University system in continuing its 
school. The indications are that the authorities of Duke University are 
desirous that its medical school should be a regional rather than a local 

Supplementary Suggestions 33 

institution. Relatively a small proportion of those completing the two-year 
course at Chapel Hill enter Duke. They attend institutions in various parts 
of the country. To date, those students who have had the backing of the 
University medical school have been able to secure entrance to four-year 
medical schools after completing the two years of work at Chapel Hill. As 
long as this condition obtains, the University organization may well continue 
its two-year program. When this ceases to be true, it would then appear 
to be wise to discontinue the School of Medicine. 

Home Demonstration Agents 

Mrs. Jane S. McKimmon furnished the survey committee with informa- 
tion regarding the staff of home demonstration agents (white), of whom 
there are sixty-one in the state. Persons engaged in this service not only 
should have a fundamental background in home economics such as would 
be obtained by means of four years of study, but should also be familiar 
with rural forces and trends of an economic and social character. Possibly 
they should also have some training in certain phases of agriculture, e.g., 
poultry raising. The state has made provision at Greensboro for giving the 
training in home economics, but no definite arrangements have been made 
for supplementing this preparation with training in the other necessary 

An examination of the salaries paid agents newly employed in the past 
three years shows only one initial salary below $1,800. The maximum paid 
was $2,400. These salaries are not by any means too large, but they are 
distinctly better than those which women graduating in home economics 
at Greensboro obtain initially. The ages of these persons range from twenty- 
six years to forty-eight years, with most of them around thirty. These 
salaries and ages would seem to indicate that the special preparation needed 
to supplement the training in home economics should be given after the 
women have been graduated in home economics and have engaged in high- 
school teaching or similar work. It could be carried out through summer 
work given at Raleigh and organized especially for persons who have a back- 
ground in home ecenomics training and wish to be more adequately prepared 
in the phases of agriculture that are directly related to their work as home 
demonstration agents. The extension service could properly make this a 
definite requirement for admission to this field of work. The salaries paid 
are sufficient to justify this requirement. Twenty-five persons were taken 
into the service during the past three years — a number large enough to 
justify the development of the special training. In the opinion of the survey 
committee, this problem should have consideration by the new University. 
The entire problem would be solved when the recommended transfers of 
work have been made. 

Veterinary Medicine 

The North Carolina State Veterinary Medical Association has presented 
to the survey committee a brief favoring the establishment of a school for 
the training of veterinarians as a part of the new University. The brief 
advocates locating the school at Chapel Hill. 

The survey committee has given careful consideration to this suggestion, 
and it is of the opinion that the State of North Carolina should not establish 

34 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

such a school at this time. It is led to this conclusion by the results of two 
studies which have been made recently of the status of the preparation of 
veterinarians. The first of these studies was conducted by the United States 
Office of Education, and the results were published in 1930. 1 The statements 
which follow are taken from this report: 

There is no need for a veterinary college in each one of 
our forty-eight states. In fact, ten or twelve schools, each 
with an average graduating class of from fifty to sixty, 
would seem at the present time to be sufficient. 

Following this statement a map appears in the report, on which are 
shown the number of veterinarians in the several states and areas served 
by each school. It is suggested that the veterinary colleges should be located 
with some regard to the distribution of the profession in the United States. 
The report points out that this condition does obtain except for the South 
and West. Conditions in the southern area are covered in the following 

It will be noted that the number of veterinarians in the 
areas served by the veterinary colleges of Alabama and 
Georgia 2 is very small, fewer than 450 in each area. If these 
two veterinary colleges were united the combined demand 
of the two sections, as represented by replacements in the 
profession and by natural development, should be sufficient 
to support a strong school of veterinary medicine. Even 
then the combined areas would not have the veterinary 
population represented by most of the areas. 

The second source from which data have been drawn is a report made 
in the summer of 1931 1 to the National Association of Veterinarians. That 
document presents a considerable body of factual material dealing with 
veterinarians and the conditions of veterinary education in the United States. 
It ends with a group of recommendations from which the following state- 
ments are taken: 

The small enrollment in the present schools, as well as 
many other factors, indicates that the need is not for more 

At another place in the report this statement occurs: 

Something should be done to awaken interest in the 
veterinary profession in states which have no schools. State 
scholarships should be provided in such states for those who 
wish to study veterinary medicine in one of the other 
states having schools. 

The survey committee is of the opinion that there are certain types of 
specialized education for which the demand is not great enough to warrant 
each state's undertaking to offer them. A single institution will serve a 

1 "Professional Veterinary Medicine." Survey of Land-Grant Colleges and Universities, Vol. 

II, Part 5. 

2 North Carolina is included in the Georgia area. 

Supplementary Suggestions 35 

region or area including several states. Such types are medicine, library 
science, architecture, textile engineering, forestry, etc. In the opinion of 
the survey committee, veterinary medicine belongs in this group. The 
survey committee wishes at this time to direct the attention of the state to 
the desirability of giving careful attention in the future to regional condi- 
tions before undertaking new types of specialized instruction and research. 

Retirement Provisions 

Data were collected on the ages of faculty members and major admin- 
istrative officers at each of the institutions. The figures reveal the presence 
of several persons at each institution who have passed the age when in 
general they can render the best service. Particularly is this true at Chapel 
Hill. These persons who have rendered long and valuable service to the 
state are continued after the period of largest usefulness, as they can not 
well be dropped from the budget when to do so would subject them to 
genuine hardship. The survey committee is of the opinion that in justice 
to these persons and in fairness to the work of the new University, arrange- 
ments should be made for retiring allowances, as soon as financial conditions 
will permit. 


At several points in this report, statements have been made by the 
survey committee expressing the view that there is much in the history of 
the three institutions in which North Carolina may properly take great 
pride. It should be said that no attempt has been made to catalogue these 
deeds in full. To have done so in any complete fashion would have required 
a report transcending the limits of this document. Furthermore, that was 
not the task assigned to the survey committee. The committee was asked to 
suggest an administrative organization for the new University and to make 
recommendations regarding the allocation of functions. The survey com- 
mittee desires, however, to record its belief that the state has received large 
returns on what it has invested in higher education. 

On the other hand, one finds in the life of these institutions much 
evidence of appreciation on the part of the people for the service rendered to 
the state. True, there have been ebbs and flows in the loyalty with which 
the institutions have received the support of the state, but that is the history 
of all publicly supported education. At the present moment the institutions 
are in a depressed condition owing to the financial retrenchments which 
they have had to make in recent years. Particularly is this true at Chapel 

Publicly supported institutions must expect to share financial reverses 
with the public which supports them. The public should bear in mind, 
however, that continued financial depression may carry an institution to a 
point from which recovery will become very difficult. Years are required to 
develop a strong college or university, and a prolongation of the present 
conditions may reduce the higher educational institutions to a situation 
from which years will be required for recovery. If this should happen, the 
cost would be so great that the state might well hesitate to permit the 

1 Report of Committee on Education of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 1931. 

36 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

starvation period to be long continued. As there other places in the state 
in which economies might be effected without the danger of dire results? 
This is a queston which should challenge the attention of the leadership of 
North Carolina. 

Unfortunately, the survey committee has not been able to point to any 
large financial economies that could be effected immediately. This is partly 
because of the retrenchment which has taken place in expenditures on the 
part of the institutions during the past few years. The two most conspicuous 
evidences of duplication were in business education and in engineering. 
The expenditures for the former at Raleigh were not large, nor in the case 
of the latter were they conspicuous at Chapel Hill. 

Financial economies, however, are not the only economies to be con- 
sidered in education. Suggestions have been made which, in the opinion of 
the survey committee, will make for increased efficiency in the state's pro- 
gram of higher education. If the suggested changes are made, the benefits 
flowing from the the state's program of higher education are certain to be 
greatly increased. The suggestions are submitted to the people of the state 
in the belief that if they are accepted, the new University will be set on the 
way to an even more distinguished career than those of its predecessors. 



Definite provision is made for the training of teachers in six state- 
supported institutions for white students in North Carolina. These institu- 
tions may be classified into two groups: 

Group I. Four-year standard colleges: 

University of North Carolina 

North Carolina College for Women 

North Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engineering 

Group II. Teachers Colleges: 

East Carolina Teachers College 
Appalachian State Teachers College 
Western Carolina Teachers College 

All six of these institutions were visited during the course of the study. 
In addition there are fifteen denominational or other private colleges and 
one private teachers colleges for white students from which no data were 
secured other than the number of students in various fields of specialization 
who will be graduated at the end of the current year. 

Certification Requirements 

The certification requirements, as defined by the State Board of Educa- 
tion, determine to a large extent the nature of the professional and subject- 
matter courses included in sequences for teachers. 1 

The present requirements were formulated in 1927-28 following a study 
by Dr. Bachman in 1924-25. They were the outgrowth of conferences attended 
by representatives of the various teacher-training institutions of the state 
and by members of the State Department of Education. The requirements 
finally adopted follow the general lines recommended by Dr. Bachman. 

Conferences held by members of the survey staff with representatives 
of the six institutions visited revealed the fact that four of the institutions 
are in general sympathy with the requirements and that the academic de- 
partments of the University of North Carolina and of the North Carolina 
College for Women are very critical of them and favor far less specific and 
rigorous requirements. These departments object both to the amount of the 
professional prescription and to the rigidity of the subject-matter require- 
ments. The situation is aggravated by the fact that the School of Education 
at Chapel Hill imposes professional requirements in addition to those speci- 
fied in the state requirements. Furthermore, the psychology department in 
the North Carolina College for Women imposes a heavy requirement in 
psychology on all prospective teachers. Such situations engender hostility 
between the academic departments and the School of Education in these 
institutions and prevent the close cooperative effort that should obtain in 
improving the training of teachers. 

1 Regulations Governing Certificates, 1929. State Board of Education, Raleigh, N. C. 

38 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

Evidence secured incidentally during the course of the survey showed 
that the requirements which are now in force have brought about two very 
definite results: first, they stimulated many colleges of the state which 
formerly gave little or no attention to the professional training of teachers 
to provide specific sequences for prospective teachers; second, they forced 
the poorly financed teachers colleges to provide improved academic and 
professional courses as they reorganized their curriculums on a four-year 
basis. Visits from representatives of the state department have resulted in 
many desirable changes during the past few years in the sequences provided 
for teachers. 

The facts secured in this study, however, show clearly that the rigid 
requirements now in force have served their period of usefulness. The 
patterns of training which must be provided for both elementary and 
secondary teachers may be vigorously attacked at various points. No scien- 
tific evidence is available which shows conclusively the type of training 
which meets the needs of teachers most effectively. There is need of much 
experimentation in this field. As long as the present requirements are 
rigorously enforced, it will be impossible for institutions to carry on experi- 
ments looking toward the improvement of their teacher-training curriculums. 
What is even more unfortunate, rigid enforcement will prevent the develop- 
ment of an experimental attitude which would lead ultimately to progressive 
revision of professional curriculums. 

The statement should be added that very little consideration need be 
given at this time to the two-year curriculum of the teachers colleges, inas- 
much as the demand for elementary teachers with less than four years of 
training is rapidly decreasing. Even in the mountain sections of the state 
many counties have adopted the four-year standard. The presidents of all 
three teachers colleges believe that after a period of five years there will 
be so little demand for teachers with only two years of training that this 
curriculum can be discontinued. At present the students of all three teachers 
colleges are strongly advised to elect the four-year curriculum. To propoee- 
at this time radical changes in the requirements for the two-year certificates, 
other than making them much less rigid, would probably result in more 
confusion than good. On the other hand, the four-year curriculums should 
be subjected to deliberate study immediately in order to bring about desir- 
able modifications. Whatever requirements are set up should be sufficiently 
liberal to permit intelligent experimentation and progressive reorganization. 

Supply and Demand for Teachers 

In order to determine the number of teachers of various types that are 
prepared annually, a request was set by J. E. Hillman, Director of Teacher 
Training in the State Department of Education, to all institutions in the 
state for information regarding the number of students enrolled at present 
who will fulfill requirements for various types of certificates at the end of the 
current academic year. The data secured are summarized in Table I. The 
entries in the table show that at least 627 elementary teachers and 544 
secondary-school teachers will be available. (The latter number was ob- 
tained by dividing 1,088, which is the total number of teachers preparing 
in various secondary-school fields, by 2, which is the number of subjects to 
which each teacher is usually assigned.) 

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Repokt to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

No data have been secured thus far relative to the number of teachers 
needed annually in elementary schools. The statements made by representa- 
tives of various institutions indicate that most of the four-year graduates 
and a large majority of the two-year graduates were placed last year. It is, 
however, becoming increasingly difficult to place the latter. 

With respect to the demand for secondary-school teachers, data are 
available from which certain inferences can be drawn. Table II, which was 
prepared by J. E. Hillman, shows that there are 4,539 white high-school 


Total Number of White High-School Teachers 











teachers holding positions this year. This is a decrease of 129 as compared 
with the number for 1929-30. Mr. Hillman reports that the average tenure 
is now about nine years. On this basis approximately 500 teachers will be 
required each year. According to the data presented, North Carolina is 
preparing each year about the number of teachers needed. These calculations, 
however, leave out of account several items, such as graduate students who 
go into high-school teaching and those who receive degrees at the end of 
summer terms. 

When the number of teachers being prepared in certain fields is compared 
with the probable demand, as nearly as it can be estimated, it becomes 
obvious that in some fields, such as modern languages, many more teachers 
are being provided than will be needed, and that fewer teachers than are 
needed are being prepared in other fields, such as commercial ducation. This 
phase of the situation should have careful consideration by all institutions 
which prepare teachers. 

School of Education at Chapel Hill 

It is the purpose of this section of the report to present findings con- 
cerning the status of teacher training at Chapel Hill and to suggest tentative 

The chief purpose of the School of Education as defined in the University 
Bulletin is "to prepare young men and women for the more responsible 
teaching positions, principalships and superintendences." Little or no 
emphasis is given to the research functions of the institutions. 

Four-year curriculums are provided for prospective elementary- and 
secondary-school teachers. Students who pursue these sequences register 
in the School of Education. Graduate students in education who are candi- 
dates for advanced degrees register in the Graduate School of the University. 

The staff of the School of Education includes six professors, four asso- 
ciate professors, three assistant professors, and two instructors. These 

Preparation of Teachers 41 

include six supervisors of practice teaching who also give courses in special 

Graduate Work: The Department of Education is a unit of the Graduate 
School and as such registers students for advanced degrees. There were only 
about eighteen graduate students in education during the fall quarter of the 
academic year 1931-32. The result is small registration in advanced courses. 

Four functions of the Department were mentioned in conference with 
Dean Walker: the training of principals, supervisors, superintendents; the 
training of teachers of education in teachers colleges and departments of 
education; the giving of courses in education to undergraduate students and 
to teachers in service; and research, which involves training technical 
workers in research as well as research work by individual members of the 

A feeling of depression pervades a part of the faculty, owing to the 
following facts: (a) small graduate registration, (b) absence of two leading 
members of the staff, (c) lack of funds with which to carry on research 
projects, (d) failure to adopt and support an aggressive policy with respect 
to scholarly study and research. 

Training of Teachers of Secondary-School Subjects: Six types of pros- 
pective secondary-school teachers are trained, namely, those preparing to 
teach Latin, French, English, mathematics, science, and history and other 
social sciences. Students are advised to take majors and minors in the 
following combinations: English and Latin; English and French; science 
and mathematics; and history and one other field. 

The junior-college requirements are essentially the same as in the 
liberal arts college, with the following exceptions: one foreign language is 
required rather than two; and mathematics is optional (nine out of ten 
take it, however). Each prospective teacher chooses near the end of the 
sophomore year the fields in which he wishes to prepare. He is then placed 
under the direction of the member of the School who gives special methods 
in the major field selected. The sequences in both the major and minor 
fields are broadened out more than is customary in the liberal arts college 
in order to provide an adequate background for teaching in specific fields. 

The Deans of the School of Education and of the Liberal Arts College 
were questioned concerning the wisdom of transferring prospective teachers 
to the College of Liberal Arts. The Dean of the School of Education opposed 
the change for the following reasons: the very rigid language and mathe- 
matics requirements in the junior college; the extreme specialization which 
prevails in the College; and the unsympathetic attitude of the College 
faculty toward professional courses. The Dean of the College believed that 
such a transfer would be advisable and practicable. He stated, however, 
that if prospective teachers registered through his office they should be 
assigned to a special adviser from the Department of Education, for two 
reasons: first, members of academic departments are not familiar with the 
professional requirements and would be irritated if they were made responsi- 
ble for the administration of such requirements; and second, modifications 
would be necessary in the usual requirements of the College which could be 
administered to the student's best interest by someone who was professionally 

42 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

The professional requirements for prospective high-school teachers in- 
clude nine courses totaling thirty semester hours: 

Introduction to Education 
Introduction to Educational Psychology 
Educational Psychology 
General Methods in Secondary Education 
Principles of Secondary Education 
Special Methods in two subjects 
Practice Teaching in two subjects 

The fact should be pointed out that thirty semester hours are required 
by the School of Education, as compared with twenty-one semester hours 
recommended by the State Board of Education. This results in much ill- 
feeling on the part of the academic faculty; it also seriously complicates 
the students' programs. 

The practice-teaching facilities are unique in some respects. The Chapel 
Hill high school is used. Six members of the College faculty supervise 
instruction in the high school in their respective departments, give special- 
methods courses in the School of Education, and supervise the practice 
teaching. Owing to the limited number of students trained yearly, it has 
not been necessary, as yet, to make other provisions for practice teaching. 
Any expansion in the number of teachers trained would make necessary an 
expansion of practice facilities. The six supervising teachers referred to 
above have unusually broad training for such positions. 

Training of Teachers of Special Subjects: School librarians are the 
only teachers of special subjects trained at the University. 

Elementary Teachers: The students who major in elementary education 
are very limited in number. Only nine primary and six grammar-grade 
teachers are registered in the present senior class. All students who take 
the two curriculums provided enter by advanced standing. About half come 
from normal schools, the other half from junior colleges. 

Practice teaching is done in the elementary school of Chapel Hill, which 
can accommodate about twenty-four each year. A request was made in the 
budget for 1929-31 for a training school at a cost of half a million. 

Free Tuition: By the Act of the General Assembly of 1887 free tuition 
is given to prospective teachers of North Carolina who will agree to teach 
for two years in the state. Whereas this privilege was formerly granted by 
the deans of all divisions, it is now administered by the Dean of the School 
of Education. There was opposition to the concentration of this privilege 
at first, but the practice is no longer questioned. Practically all prospective 
high-school teachers make use of the privilege, which means a saving of $75 
a year. Less than half of the elementary teachers apply for it. 

Registration: An examination was made of the registration in classes 
during the academic year 1930-31 and for the first term of the current year. 
It showed that most of the small registrations were in three types of courses: 
(1) courses for prospective elementary-school teachers, (2) courses for pros- 
pective high-school teachers in the fields in which the demand is limited, and 
(3) courses for graduate students. 

The members of the faculty of the School of Education furnished the 
survey staff with detailed outlines of the courses for which they were 

Preparation of Teachers 43 

responsible. An analysis of these descriptions convinced the survey staff 
that there is opportunity for the consolidation of the content of many of the 
courses offered. 

General Plans of the School of Education: The general plans of the 
School of Education for the future are summarized in a comprehensive 
report accompanying the budget for 1929-31. The specific needs and desired 
expansions of the School were summarized under the following heads: 

1. The Training School, for which $556,000 was asked for construction 
and library, and approximately a $50,000 addition to the annual budget. 

2. Elementary Education, for which a budget of $65,000 per year was 
asked in addition to the present expenditures for training supervisors, 
experimental workers, principals, and expert teachers. 

3. Secondary Education, for which provisions were requested in the 
near future for training teachers in fine arts, physical education, commercial 
education, and library science. 

4. Graduate work, for which no special requests were made which are 
not included in 2 and 3 above. The need of strengthening the graduate work 
was emphasized, however. 

5. Bureau of Educational Research, for which expansions were re- 

6. Other needs, including a department of educational administration, 
a department of educational psychology, a department of rural education, 
and provision for supplementing the work now done by individual members 
of the staff. 

It is obvious that the proposed program places large emphasis on the 
training of teachers, supervisors, and principals. There is a division of 
opinion in the faculty concerning the wisdom of giving this field of service 
preeminence over the research functions of the School. 

Provisional Recommendations: The recommendations that follow have 
significance only as the status of teacher training in the other institutions 
studied is understood. They will be listed here briefly and incorporated 
later into the section on recommendations at the end of this report. 

1. The transfer of the training of elementary teachers to North Carolina 
College for Women. 

2. The reorganization of the School of Education into a Department 
of Education. 

3. The registration of prospective high-school teachers through the 
office of the Dean of the College of Liberal Arts. 

4. The joint appointment of instructors giving special-methods courses 
by the Department of Education and the subject-matter departments con- 

5. The development and expansion of the work in education to cover 
all the major fields of educational inquiry pertinent to North Carolina. 
Research and scholarly study should be the dominating aims of the Depart- 
ment. It should concentrate on the training of principals, superintendents, 
and supervisors. 

6. The discontinuation of free tuition privileges for any single group 
or class of students. 

44 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

State College of Agriculture and Engineering 

The chief aim of the School of Education is "to train principals and 
teachers for rural and urban high schools." In addition it prepares teachers 
of vocational agriculture, of industrial arts, and of regular high-school sub- 
jects. It also gives courses in vocational guidance and industrial education. 

Four types of curriculums are provided in meeting the professional 
needs of students, namely, in 

1. Agricultural education 

2. Industrial arts 

3. Commercial subjects 

4. Academic subjects taught in the high schools 

Agricultural Education: President Brooks considers that the chief 
function of the School of Education is to train teachers of vocational agri- 
culture for the high schools of the state. 

The service of the School in this connection is indicated in a measure 
by the fact that the registration for 1930-31 was 117 and for 1931-32 is more 
than 100. Available data show that of the 162 teachers of agriculture in the 
high schools of the state, 126 received their training at the College. They 
show also that of the 182 students thus far graduated in vocational agricul- 
ture, 115 are teaching in the state. Furthermore, the demand for teachers 
absorbs the number who graduate each year. Consequently very few have 
had to go to other states to find positions. 

The practice teaching is done in rural high schools of the county or 
neighboring counties. Students assigned to practice teaching spend five 
weeks at the school to which they are assigned, devoting full time to their 
responsibilities. It is obvious that the training provided offers very practical 
contacts and experience. The supervision provided is limited to three visits 
from the college supervisors and about the same number from the state 
supervisors. It could advantageously be increased. 

In view of the fact that State College is the only institution which offers 
training in vocational agriculture, the work in this field which is now in 
progress there should be continued and given such support as may be 
necessary. This suggestion is subject to the recommendations made in 
Chapter II regarding transfer of agriculture to Chapel Hill. 

Industrial Arts Education: A detailed curriculum for the training of 
teachers of industrial arts is offered by the School of Education. The regis- 
tration as yet is very limited: five freshmen, two sophomores, one junior, 
and one senior. 

There is no other center in the state for the training of high-school 
teachers in this field. Of the forty teachers of industrial arts in the state, 
only ten were trained in the state; thirty came from eleven other states. 

The College of Engineering provides all the technical courses needed 
except one which has been developed through cooperation with the School 
of Education. In addition, the School of Education provides the general 
and specialized courses necessary. 

President Brooks deplores the situation in the field of industrial arts 
and recommends that the experiment in training teachers in this field be 
continued at State College. If the demand for teachers of industrial arts 

Preparation of Teachers 45 

is great enough to warrant the continuation of this curriculum, it should 
be maintained as long as the work in engineering is continued at Raleigh. 

Commercial Education: A curriculum in this field has been announced. 
The registration is very small: two freshmen, four sophomores. No pro- 
fessional courses in the field have been provided as yet, although some have 
been announced. If a demand develops, the courses will be given. 

President Brooks believes that the College can provide excellent training 
in commercial education through cooperation with its own School of Business 
and the private business colleges of the city. He recognizes the fact that 
the University has a strong School of Commerce. 

For reasons which are given in Chapter II, this type of work should be 
discontinued at State College and established at the College for Women. 

Teachers of Academic Subjects: There are 112 registered in the School 
of Education who are preparing to teach academic subjects in high school: 
21 freshmen, 23 sophomores, 21 juniors, 29 seniors, 11 graduates, 3 irregulars, 
4 specials. The men who pursue these courses are four-year students from 
all parts of the state. The women come chiefly from Raleigh. 

"When the institution began to train teachers of academic subjects, it 
conceived its real function to be in the field of science. As the work actually 
developed, the chief emphasis has been on training in English and history. 

Graduate Work in Education: The School of Education provides to 
Raleigh teachers some graduate work in education during the school year, 
and also during the summer. The enrollments during the academic year 
are too small to justify the continuance of this work. The local demand 
could be supplied through the proposed unified extension service. 

Somewhat generous provision is made by the School for courses during 
the summer. Last year 385 attended: 129 men and 256 women. About 50 
per cent take courses in education. 

Owing to lack of funds, only about $4,000 is available for the summer 
term, 1932. The faculty will be informed to this effect and told that their pay 
will be determined by the fees secured through registration. This is a 
poor basis on which to conduct the Summer School. The present seems an 
appropriate time to discontinue the Summer School work in education at 
Raleigh and to center it at the University and at the North Carolina College 
for Women, where the equipment is better and where stronger programs can 
be developed. 

Tentative Recommendations: The facts which have been presented 
justify the following tentative recommendations: 

1. That the training of teachers of agriculture and industrial arts be 
continued at Raleigh subject to the recommendations made under Chapter II. 

2. That the training of commercial teachers and the graduate training 
of teachers and school officers at Raleigh be discontinued. 

3. That the School of Education be transformed into a Department of 
Education. Through the eliminations suggested in 2 above, the staff could 
be reduced materially. This Department of Education should be made an 
integral part of the proposed Division of Education. 

4. That the special-methods courses needed be developed through the 
cooperation of the subject-matter departments concerned and the Department 
of Education. 

46 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

North Carolina College for Women 

"The chief purposes of the College originally was to provide instruction 
for women who expected to enter the public school system of the state." 1 
Approximately nine-tenths of its graduates render service in the public or 
private schools of the state. "For students who may not wish to teach, and 
who must yet look to their own efforts for a livelihood, instruction is offered 
in the commercial branches, drawing, industrial art, home economics, 
nursing, and other subjects, the mastery of which will enable them to 
become self-supporting." 1 

The registration in the College is 1678 for the present semester, dis- 
tributed as follows: freshmen, 534; sophomores, 336; juniors, 271; seniors, 
296; commercial students who take a one-year non-credit course, 208; special 
students, 33. The number of students from North Carolina is 1,520 and 
from out of the state is 158. Approximately one-fourth of the students 
come from Guilford, the county in which the College is located, and adjacent 
counties. Otherwise the College has a wide distribution throughout the 
state, only three counties having no resident student this year. The extent 
to which the institution is engaged in the preparation of teachers is shown 
by the fact that of the 296 students who are planning to take degrees in 
June, 1932, 265 are preparing to teach. Miss Class B. Byrd, alumnae secre- 
tary, obtained reports from 94 per cent of the students who were graduated 
in the ten classes from 1922 to 1931 inclusive. An analysis of these returns 
showed that in their first year out of college 74.7 per cent of the graduates 
engaged in some form of teaching. At the time the reports were made, 50 
per cent of the graduates were still teaching, regardless of the time when 
they may have completed their study at the College. The majority of the 
graduates were engaged in teaching in the elementary schools. These data 
make obvious the importance of making adequate provision for the profes- 
sional training of teachers at Greensboro. 

Training of Elementary Teachers: The first two years of the curriculum 
include about the same subjects as are required of liberal arts students 
during the junior-college period. The last two years are devoted largely to 
fulfilling state requirements for certification. As indicated elsewhere, the 
survey staff believes the state requirements should be less rigid in order 
that the Division of Education may be free to carry on progressive revision 
of its courses for elementary teachers. 

Practice teaching is provided in the training school only. Thus far 
the College has been able to conform to the standards of the American Asso- 
ciation of Teachers Colleges with respect to the number of student teachers 
per teacher. The training-school building has been well planned for practice 
teaching, demonstrations, and experimentation. 

Training of High-School Teachers: The training of high-school teachers 
should be continued at the College. However, the subject-matter require- 
ments as specified by the State Department of Education and the professional 
requirements as administered by the School of Education are the cause of 
much criticism and dissatisfaction among the academic departments of the 
College. On the other hand, the rigid requirement of the psychology depart- 

1 Bulletin of the North Carolina College for Women, XX, No. 3, 23. 

i Ibid. 

Preparation of Teachers 47 

ment to the effect that all students must take elementary psychology before 
they may register for courses in educational psychology irritates the staff 
of the School of Education. If the state requirements were less rigid, it 
would be possible for the College to initiate experiments with respect to 
the types of courses and sequences which are most appropriate in training 

Furthermore, there is considerable dissatisfaction among academic 
departments relative to special-methods courses. Since these departments 
should be vitally concerned with both the subject-matter and the professional 
needs of high-school teachers, provision should be made for the cooperation 
of all departments concerned in studying the problems involved in training 
teachers and in formulating curriculums for them. 

Training Teachers of Special Subjects: The facts relative to the train- 
ing of teachers of special subjects can be summarized briefly: 

1. Twenty or more teachers of music are prepared each year in a well- 
equipped department. No other state-supported institution in North Carolina 
has adequate facilities for this type of training. 

2. Thirty or more teachers of home economics are prepared annually 
in a well-organized and well-equipped department. Only one other state- 
supported institution provides a major in this field. The demand at present 
is absorbing the product of both institutions, but it would be easily possible 
to meet all needs in this field through the work at Greensboro. 

3. From seventeen to twenty women are prepared annually to direct 
work in physical education in high schools. No other state-supported insti- 
tution makes broad provision for the training of women in this field. The 
material facilities at the College are excellent for this type of work. 

4. A curriculum for commercial teachers has been recommended by the 
faculty. The plan is to correlate this curriculum in part with the curriculum 
for secretarial workers which has been projected. The only other institution 
which has announced a curriculum for commercial teachers is State College. 
There is no provision there for the necessary technical training in some 

Training of Principals and Supervisors: Prospective supervisors and 
principals, with but rare exceptions, do not register at the College during 
the academic year. It is obvious that such students should register where 
advanced work in education can be provided on a broad basis. Supple- 
mentary contact with supervisory problems is also essential. An analysis 
of the list of courses now offered in education during the academic year 
shows that no specific provision is made at present for supervisors and other 
school officers. 

Summer School: The College provides during the summer a generous 
program of professional courses for elementary and secondary teachers and 
a limited sequence for supervisory officers. Thus far the registration has 
been largely undergraduates. Only sixty-two graduate students registered 
last summer, distributed among various departments as follows: education, 
seventeen; English, eleven; French, eight; history, seven; home economics, 
three; chemistry, one; mathematics, one; Bible, one; library science, eleven. 
Thus far only thirteen master's degrees have been granted. The wisdom 
of providing graduate courses for such a small number of students in dif- 
ferent departments may be seriously questioned. 

48 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

Recommendations: The facts presented justify the following tentative 
recommendations : 

1. That the training of high-school teachers be continued at the College. 
The training of elementary-school teachers should be continued for the 
present. Provision should be made for a study of the teachers colleges of 
the state in relation to the whole program of higher education. 

2. That the training of teachers of the following special subjects and 
fields be continued: music, home economics, physical education, and special 
training in the field of commercial education. This is the only branch of 
the University where provision need be made for the preparation of eiemen- 
tary-school teachers. This recommendation is subject to the readjustments 
suggested in Chapter II. 

3. That the training of supervisors and school officers be discontinued 
except as it may be desirable to use the facilities for observation and 
practice in conneotion with the development of graduate instruction at 
Chapel Hill. 

4. That the training school reduce materially its activities in training 
student teachers and develop itself more largely into a demonstration and 
laboratory school. In order to achieve these ends, arrangements should be 
made with the school system of Greensboro to provide practice facilities in 
both elementary and secondary schools. 

5. That the School of Education be changed to a Department of Educa- 
tion coordinate with other departments in the College. 

6. That instructors in special methods be members of the respective 
subject-matter departments and of the Department of Education. One of 
the major responsibilities of each instructor should be to secure the co- 
operation of both departments in the study of the professional problems 
involved in his field. 

General Conclusions 

The State Board of Education requires a total of twenty-one semester 
hours 1 in educational psychology, principles of education, methods and 
materials of teaching, and practice teaching and observation. In addition 
the requirements in subject-matter fields are prescribed in great detail — 
the number of semester hours which must be taken and, in some cases, the 
particular lines in which the teacher-in-training must be prepared. Certifi- 
cates issued by the State Department are not general but specify the lines 
in which teachers may give instruction. This teacher-training program is 
part of a state-wide plan of organization which is designed to avoid the 
evils of expanded programs of courses conducted by teachers who themselves 
have no adequate acquaintance with the subjects in which they are attempt- 
ing to give instruction. 

It is not the function of this survey to deal with the state program of 
teacher training except as it affects the three state institutions of higher 
education. The obvious effect of the state requirements on the three state 
institutions has been to encourage overemphasis on professional courses, 
to cultivate antagonisms between schools of education and other divisions 
of the institutions, to hamper progressive experimentation, and, on the whole,, 
to defeat the development of the highest scholarly standards. 

1 Twenty-four semester hours in the case of elementary-school teachers. 

Preparation of Teachers 49 

Consultation with the officers of the State Department of Public Instruc- 
tion indicates that some of the unfavorable consequences of the state plan 
of certification are due to administration at the institutions and not to the 
requirements of the State Department. It seems clear, however, that any- 
detailed series of prescriptions, such as are now in force in North Carolina, 
tends to inhibit wholesome development under the guidance of the state's 
intellectual leaders. 

No program of teacher training in the state can be successful which 
does not include the constant, direct, and sympathetic participation of the 
State Department of Public Instruction and of the full faculty of each of 
the state institutions. No hard-and-fast requirement can be substituted for 
intelligent cooperation and progressive revision of training programs. 

Conditions seem favorable for a general reorganization of the work in 
education in the state institutions of higher education. The supply of 
teachers for both secondary schools and elementary schools is now ample, 
and it is possible to raise standards to a higher level. It will very shortly be 
possible to require of all elementary-school teachers four years of prepara- 
tion beyond the high school. In the high school the aim should be to require 
as soon as possible, certainly within the next five years and possibly earlier, 
the equivalent of the master's degree. 

It is impossible to overemphasize the fact that the establishment of 
higher standards requires the intelligent cooperation of the intellectual 
leaders of the state. The belief that competence as a teacher depends en- 
tirely on knowledge of subject-matter is still to be found among the members 
of college faculties in North Carolina. Adherence to this belief has become 
a matter of academic creed with some who are perhaps reinforced in their 
attitudes by the separatist policy of schools of education. Experience has 
justified the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools and 
other bodies dealing with educational problems in setting up certain require- 
ments of a strictly professional type. An adjustment of academic require- 
ments and professional requirements can be reached which will be of great 
advantage to education if ancient prejudices can be laid aside and institu- 
tions of higher education can come to recognize the fact that one of their 
major problems is the training of teachers who will be equipped with the 
best that the institutions can provide in knowledge of subject matter, 
knowledge of the educational system, and knowledge of the processes by 
which learning can be stimulated. 

In order to bring about the development of education needed by the 
state, it is recommended: 

1. That a Council representative of the three departments of education 
by appointed by the President to have under its consideration the possibili- 
ties of improvement in the training of teachers and the effective study of 
education. The latter is an aspect that has been too long neglected in North 
Carolina. In the opinion of the survey committee it is important that 
provision be made for this Council, as there is need for a group of persons 
who shall be studying constantly the needs of the state as a whole in this 

2. That the Council in charge of the Division of Education be given 
authority to arrange the details of organization, such as the distribution of 
courses, within each department of education. This Council should have 

50 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

power to revise arrangements from time to time as conditions dictate. 
Especially should this Council determine from time to time which institution 
shall provide training for teachers of a particular type. In making such 
determinations the Council should take into account the competence and 
enthusiasm of special academic departments and should locate the work 
for teachers of a particular type at that institution where conditions are 
most favorable. These actions would be subject to approval by the President. 
Certain distributions of functions seem so obvious that they can now 
be recommended explicitly: 

a. Graduate work in education should be centered at Chapel 
Hill, and there should be developed in this institution a 
strong department, competent to train the supervisors 
and administrators of the state, and to serve as the center 
for investigation of state problems. The University has, 
to date, failed to take advantage of its opportunities in 
this field. It should be the state's center for continuous 
investigations in the field of education, and it should 
exert a constructive leadership in the development of 
education in the state. 

b. The branch of the University at Raleigh should be the 
center at which teachers of agriculture and teachers of 
the industrial arts are trained to the extent needed by 
the state, subject to the recommendations in Chapter II. 

c. The training of elementary teachers in the University 
should be limited to Greensboro, subject to the statement 
made in connection with the specific recommendations 
regarding this work in relation to the teachers colleges. 

d. The training of high-school teachers, other than those in 
agriculture and industrial arts, should be centered either 
at Chapel Hill or at Greensboro. In some cases it will 
be legitimate to train high-school teachers in special 
subjects at both of these institutions. Determining con- 
siderations in regard to this last matter should be the 
competence and enthusiasm for teacher-training on the 
part of the academic departments concerned. 

e. Training in commercial education, and training in home 
economics and in music, subject to the recommendations 
made in Chapter II, should be at Greensboro. 

f. The training of school librarians should probably be locat- 
ed at a single center, and, in view of the developments 
at Chapel Hill in the newly organized Library School, 
this seems to be the natural center for such work in the 
future: It may be desirable to make arrangements for a 
limited amount of instruction in library science to be 
offered at Greensboro. This instruction could be given 
by members of the faculty from Chapel Hill. 

g. Other adjustments in particular fields may properly be 
left to the President to make, with the advice of the 
suggested Council. 

Preparation of Teachers 51 

3. That the summer courses given in the three institutions be reor- 
ganized under the supervision of a director of the Summer Session. The 
concentration of summer classes is certainly desirable. At present there is 
unfortunate duplication which results in numerous small classes in the 
three institutions. 

4. That the staffs of the several departments of education be re- 
organized in such a way as to concentrate in the various institutions the 
members of the faculty necessary to carry on the functions allocated to 
those institutions. This will undoubtedly result in a material reduction in 
the educational staff both at Greensboro and at Raleigh. 

5. That all courses in methods and materials of teaching be given by 
staff members who belong both to the local Department of Education and 
to the academic department concerned. 

6. That the State Department of Public Instruction be requested to 
enter into a conference with the consolidated Division of Education and to 
use that agency as a laboratory for the continual and progressive revision 
of the requirements for certification. 

7. That all professional requirements in three institutions be reduced 
at once so as not to exceed eighteen hours. 

8. That the Council on Education take steps to canvass the whole 
problem of professional training with a view to securing the most advan- 
tageous coordination of professional requirements with those of academic 

9. That the present legislation providing free tuition for teachers-in- 
training be repealed. 

10. That the present arrangement at the North Carolina College for 
Women with respect to prerequisites in psychology be abandoned, and that 
the work of this Department be adjusted in accordance with the general 
principle recommended earlier, namely, that there be a substantial reduction 
in professional requirements. 



The engineering tradition at Chapel Hill may be traced back to the 
founding of the University in 1795, in the early years as a thin line broken 
only by the suspension of the institution in the period of reconstruction, 
and in recent years as a vigorous growth. Before 18 90, engineering was 
only an incidental subject for the A.B. degree. In that year a definite 
curriculum was established in the Department of Engineering and Mathe- 
matics, which was expanded into the Department of Applied Sciences in 
1904 and became a distinct school in 1908. The present School of 
Engineering was created in 1922. Its organization and program show 
the influence of the Harvard School of Engineering, from which many of 
its leading professors have been drawn, and include in modified form some 
of the features of the cooperative plan first introduced at the University 
of Cincinnati and later modified by the University of Pittsburgh and the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

The University was recognized in 1867 as the recipient of the state's 
land-scrip rights under the Morrill Act, but was never able -- or possibly 
willing -- to carry out its practical intent by establishing "colleges of 
agriculture and the mechanic arts." As a result of agitation by the 
agricultural and industrial interests, the University was forced in 1887 
to relinquish these rights to a new institution, "The North Carolina 
College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts." Certain citizens of Raleigh 
had previously taken steps to establish by popular subscription an indus- 
trial school for "instruction in wood-working, mining metallurgy, practi- 
cal agriculture, and such other branches of industrial education as may 
be deemed expedient." The two efforts were merged and the new College 
was opened at Raleigh in 188 9. In 1917, the General Assembly changed 
the name to "The North Carolina College of Agriculture and Engineering." 
These brief historical notes may serve as an introduction to the problems 
faced by North Carolina in the coordination and further development of 
its programs of higher education in engineering and industry. 

Two fairly distinct types of technical education are proposed for the 
new University system. One prepares for the professional branches of 
engineering and the other for technical and executive work in specific 
industries. The two have elements in common and can work to ad- 
vantage side by side, but the survey committee feels that they should be 
encouraged to develop along different lines. It therefore recommends 
that separate divisions be set up, one for engineering and one for indus- 

In seeking a plan of organization and of location for these divisions 
which in the long run will offer the greatest advantage to the state, four 
major possibilities were considered: 

1. To maintain the present schools at Raleigh and at Chapel Hill, but 
to set up within the University organization such a clear division of aims 
and of fields that duplication and competition will be reduced to a mini- 
mum. This plan has the advantage of expediency, in that it does the 
least damage to existing loyalties and vested interests, and is therefore 

Engineering and Industry 53 

least likely to meet organized opposition. In the Longer perspective, 
however, the disadvantages seem clearly to outweigh this advantage. If 
separate schools are maintained, duplication can not be eliminated, either 
in the engineering or in the scientific departments. The attendant di- 
vision of resources would make it difficult for either school to reach and 
to hold a place of the highest rank. An actual division of fields in 
engineering would be difficult, perhaps impossible, to achieve without a 
difference of standards. Neither center would willingly accept the lower 
position in the academic scale. While the actual overlapping between 
Chapel Hill and Raleigh has been more apparent than real, the need for 
two engineering schools differing in type will be greatly diminished if a 
strong school of industries is built up. The two engineering schools are 
not far enough apart to serve distinct regional areas, and there is no 
apparent need to provide separately for distinct groups in the population. 
Considering its resources, the state will undoubtedly be able to build up 
a stronger organization for technical education in a unified location than 
it can afford to maintain at two separate centers. 

2. To consolidate all technical education at Raleigh. If this plan 
should be carried out in a thorough-going fashion, Raleigh should also 
become the principal center of the fundamental scientific departments with 
which engineering and industry are allied. A less effective alternative, 
from the viewpoint of the technical divisions, would be to make Chapel 
Hill the principal center of the scientific departments and to maintain 
service units of staff and equipment at Raleigh. 

The first alternative, with its concentration of scientific facilities and 
all related professional schools at Raleigh, would leave Chapel Hill as a 
center of purely humanistic studies, both liberal and professional. This 
artificial separation of the University would have little to recommend it 
other than local expediency. Engineering has increasing affinities with 
law in the field of patents, with economics in its relations to business, with 
political science in its relations to city planning and administration, and 
with psychology in its relations to industrial organization and personnel. 
The limited time available in the technical curricula for humanistic studies 
adds to the importance of a broadening enviroment and of personal 
contacts with other groups of teachers and students. 

Weight should also be given to the fact that the present nucleus of 
organization and personnel at Raleigh, while relatively efficient in its 
present sphere of work, scarcely affords the foundation for a scientific 
school of notable rank. The staff includes few men of the first rank, 
either in point of training or of professional attainments. The scientific 
equipment is inadequate for work of an advanced grade. In general, the 
plan of grouping at Raleigh all scientific and technical work at senior 
levels could not be recommended for piecemeal execution. The process 
of reorganization would involve conflicts of personal interests and of 
viewpoints which could scarcely be composed in less than a generation. 
If the state were in a financial position to carry out a plan of transfer 
and consolidation on an ample scale at one step, the chances of success 
would be greatly increased; otherwise, they seem slight. If only the 
engineering school at Chapel Hill were to be transferred without other 
measures to strengthen the organization at Raleigh, the immediate result 
might be little more than a relocation of the portable equipment. Much 

54 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

of the best research equipment for hydraulic and sanitary engineering is 
of fixed character and would remain at Chapel Hill. It seems highly 
probable that the present engineering staff and student body at Chapel 
Hill would be scattered among other institutions. The Southeast would 
thus lose its only existing center of postgraduate work in engineering on 
a genuinely advanced level, for the problematic creation at some future 
time of an enlarged institute of technology for which the present founda- 
tions at Raleigh are inadequate. 

If the second alternative were chosen and the scientific departments 
at Raleigh were maintained at a service level only, the engineering school 
would certainly not rise above a routine level of excellence, and the pro- 
posed Division of Industries would be seriously limited. Postgraduate 
work of a high order would be impracticable, and little could be attempted 
in either engineering or industrial research beyond the simpler practical 
problems. If, on the other hand, the scientific departments should be 
built up to high levels at both centers, the expensive duplications would 
offset whatever savings might result from the consolidation of the engi- 
neering schools. 

3. To consolidate the more general engineering departments at Chapel 
Hill, and to incorporate the more specialized branches, together with the 
present Textile School, into a Division of Industries which would remain 
permanently at Raleigh. Under this plan, courses for the training of 
teachers of industrial branches would be centered at Raleigh. A junior 
college could also be maintained at Raleigh to prepare students for the 
senior divisions at other centers of the University system. Students of 
engineering could thus take the first two years of their course either at 
Raleigh or at Chapel Hill but would be concentrated at the latter center 
tor the last two years of their course. 

Under this general plan, the principal center of teaching and research 
in the basic sciences would remain at Chapel Hill. The engineering 
school would have the advantage of intimate association with these de- 
partments. The Division of Industries would in time require scientific 
facilities beyond those commonly afforded by mere service departments. 
The same would probably be true of its relations to economics and com- 
merce, and in only a lesser degree to hygiene, medicine, law, and public 

The immediate advantage of this plan lies in the possibility of making 
effective use of the present buildings and much of the present equipment 
at Raleigh. The potential disadvantages, however, turn the balance 
against the plan. 

4. To adopt as a policy the ultimate consolidation of all scientific and 
technical divisions, except at the junior-college level, at Chapel Hill. The 
obvious intent of the plan is to eliminate all duplications, to minimize 
all conflicts of interests, to assure the most intimate association of the 
humanistic, scientific, and technical divisions, and to stimulate the largest 
degree of cross- fertilization in the intellectual and social life of the new 
University. Within the financial resources of the state, it is felt that no 
other plan can assure the best in scientific and technological education, and 
this is the plan that is recommended. 

The grounds for this recommendation are implicit in the discussion of 
the three other plans considered. Taking the scientific and engineering 

Engineering and Industry 55 

departments together, the present foundations at Chapel Hill are more nearly 
adequate for a plan of consolidation than those at Raleigh. The gradual 
transfer of personnel and equipment to Chapel Hill involves less risk and 
difficulty than transfers in the reverse direction. A possible exception 
may exist in the case of the Textile School. As an alternative to in- 
corporating it into the University at Chapel Hill, the State may wish to 
consider transferring it to some leading center of the textile industry and 
expanding it into a specialized textile institute on the order of the insti- 
tution at Lowell, Massachusetts, or preferably of the famous school at 
Reutlingen in Germany. The problem of coordinating research for the 
textile industry at Chapel Hill and practical instruction and development 
work at some other center does not appear insuperable. 

If the general policy recommended in plan 4 is adopted, it should be 
carried into effect as rapidly as considerations of economy and of ex- 
pediency will permit. With these ends in view, the following immediate 
recommendations are made: 

1. Regrouping the present departments at Raleigh into separate Di- 
visions of Engineering and of Industries. Suggestion for the set-up of 
the Division of Industries have already been outlined in the discussion of 
the third general plan. 

2. Placing the engineering work at Chapel Hill and at Raleigh under 
one coordinating head, with temporary provision for local supervision at 
each center. 

3. Organizing both engineering schools into Departments of Civil, 
Mechanical, Electrical, and Chemical Engineering, with a professor in 
charge at each local center and departmental committees on coordination 
of programs at the two centers. 

4. Selection of a director for the Division of Industries. The position 
would require a man of wide executive experience, broad knowledge of 
industries, high promotional ability, and ample experience as an organizer 
and coordinator of educational programs. 

5. Appointment of a head for each of the schools included in the 
Division of Industries. 

6. A detailed study looking to the removal of the four general en- 
gineering departments from Raleigh to Chapel Hill as soon as adequate 
laboratory and dormitory accommodations can be provided at the latter 
center and the present buildings at Raleigh can be transferred to the 
Division of Industries, to the proposed junior college, or to other uses. 

7. A detailed study looking to the provision of effective equipment 
for the several schools of the Division of Industries. The present Textile 
School is in need of considerable modernization. The equipment in cer- 
amics is excellent of its kind, but may need to be enlarged if it is to cover 
inclusively the field of earth products. A school of wood products might 
take over the present wood shops, but it would need a much more varied 

The consolidation at Chapel Hill of the present engineering labora- 
tories from Raleigh and Chapel Hill would give the new University un- 
usually effective facilities in hydraulic and sanitary engineering, ample 
facilities in highway engineering and in surveying, and reasonably ade- 
quate facilities in structural engineering. The combined equipment in 
electrical engineering is generous in amount and excellent in quality on 

56 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

the side of dynamo machinery. On the light current side, which has to 
do with communications, electronics, and the technology of instruments 
and controls, it is less ample and needs further development. In view 
of the state's leading position in the power industry, a greater development 
in the high-potential field seems desirable. The combined equipment 
in mechanics and in mechanical engineering would be fairly adequate in 
the field of heavy materials and of heat power. Further provision might 
well be made for the lighter tests of materials, including fatigue studies 
and microscopic examination, also for the study of hydraulic machinery. 
The present equipment for chemical engineering at the two centers is 
largely complementary and would require only moderate additions after 
the consolidation has been effected. 

The cooperative plan now in effect at the engineering school at Chapel 
Hill, under which students spend definite periods in assigned work in 
industries, appears to have worked well and is worthy to be continued. 
If this is done, machine shops at Chapel Hill might be used exclusively 
for laboratory and demonstration purposes rather than for detailed in- 
struction in operations. It would be desirable to make a detailed study 
of the possible application of the cooperative plan in the proposed Di- 
vision of Industries before undertaking large-scale additions to its equip- 

The principal capital expense in the consolidation of the engineering 
departments at Chapel Hill would be for a new building. In round 
figures, an outlay of from $300,000 to $500,000 would be requisite to 
provide adequate classroom and laboratory space. Assuming that the 
present total enrollment in engineering and industries is to continue, no 
saving is to be expected in operating expense. Unit costs, both at Chapel 
Hill and at Raleigh, are now at the lowest level consistent with educa- 
tional efficiency. The salaries for senior members of the staff at Chapel 
Hill are far below the levels for such salaries in comparable institutions 
in the North and East. The disparity between Raleigh and comparable 
centers is less pronounced. Personal loyalties may be counted upon to 
tide over the present economic emergency, but it is only a question of time 
until the scale of compensation must be greatly increased, or all thought 
abandoned of placing the technical divisions in a position of outstanding 
regional leadership. The opportunity to achieve this position is now particu- 
larly open and attractive, but it can not be assumed that it will remain so for 
a long period. Consolidation on the lines suggested in the last plan is 
believed to offer North Carolina an unequalled opportunity, in view of the 
present division of educational forces in all the neighboring states. 



Schools of business administration have been introduced into the cur- 
ricula of American universities within the past quarter of a century. It 
is true that the Wharton School of Finance and Commerce was established 
at the University of Pennsylvania as early as 1888, but the real 'development 
in this field of higher education began some twenty years later. Since then 
the principal universities have introduced curricula in the field of business 
education. The American Association of Collegiate Schools of Business 
was organized in 1919 and at present it numbers forty-five in its member- 
ship. The fact that these schools are still in their infancy and that the 
Association has not yet been able to set forth definite standards are of 
importance in determining the place of such institutions in the plan of 
higher education in North Carolina. 

An exaplanation of the rapid growth of business schools on the colle- 
giate level is readily found in the changing character of American business 
and industrial life. The twentieth century has witnessed a complete trans- 
formation in business methods and industrial relationships. This change 
has had a profound effect upon our social institutions. Markets have been 
expanded, individual plants have increased in size, and financial institutions 
have taken on new functions. The whole scheme of production and distribu- 
tion has suddenly become intensely complicated; the development of 
machinery and the introduction of mass methods of production have made 
possible an enormous increase in the productive capacity of labor. New 
industries have arisen which far surpass in size and influence anything that 
was known but a generation ago. 

In respect to these developments the State of North Carolina has not 
only shared but has been an outstanding example of the dynamic character 
of our American civilization. This state has not only introduced new types 
of production but, at the same time, has been converted from a predominantly 
agricultural community to one in which manufacturing plays a dominant 
role. It is likely that this industrial development will continue in the 
future owing to the exceptional resources of the state and the advantages 
it has in several fields of manufacture. 

The state is concerned with the proper direction of these industrial 
developments in the interests of the community as a whole. The spirit of 
intense individualism that has guided the early development of American 
life can not continue to exercise its influence in the face of the great cor- 
porate organizations that are at present controlling our economic destinies. 
It is important, therefore, for the state to insure an infiltration into the 
ofncerships of its business concerns of trained men ready to cope with the 
problems of production and distribution and aware of their social responsi- 
bilities. It. is for this purpose that business education is supported from 
public funds. 

Levels of Business Training 

The purpose of training in business subjects should be the needs of 
industry from the viewpoint of the well-being of the state. To the extent that 
the business interests of the state are able to utilize the resources available 

58 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

in the most effective way possible consistent with the welfare of its workers, 
the state may expect to prosper, both in the material well-being and in the 
culture of its people. 

The State of North Carolina has recognized its responsibilities in the 
training of individuals going into its industries by organizing and support- 
ing several technical schools, including those in agriculture and engineering 
and one in the techniques of the textile industry. The Textile School was 
organized in direct response to the needs of an industry that has grown in 
size and importance in recent years. 

Likewise, the state has recently assumed its obligation of training 
individuals entering the executive field. Formerly, the law school was the 
sole training-ground of collegiate grade for business. In a society in which 
techniques are simple and the organization of business enterprise is not 
complicated, the problems of administration are chiefly legal in character, 
involving the equities of individuals in commercial transactions. Under 
such circumstances the law affords the most effective type of training for 
business administration. In the complicated organization of industry as we 
find it today, however, administration assumes a role of importance equal 
to that of the law and is definitely tending to surpass it in significance. 

The administration of business enterprise today may be divided into 
three distinct fields: (1) the legal relationships involved in all commercial 
transactions, (2) technical processes, and (3) organization and administra- 
tion. Training for entrance into positions of responsibility in the first of 
these is provided for in the law school; the second, in the engineering 
institutions, and the various industrial and trade schools; training in the 
third field should be supplied by institutions affording instruction in business. 

The specific place of the business school in the educational system can 
be determined only on the basis of an analysis of the occupational levels in 
business. These may be classified roughly under the following heads: (1) 
the business owners and investors; (2) salaried major executives; (3) 
specialists such as accountants, statisticians, economists, etc.; (4) inter- 
mediate salaried executives; (5) minor executives; and (6) clerical and 
routine workers. In this classification there may be seen three fairly definite 
levels: the upper, the intermediate, and the lower. 

These three levels also indicate the proper allocation of training func- 
tions among educational institutions. The routine and clerical workers of 
the lower level can be provided from secondary schools. Those in the upper 
levels need a breadth of training that can be acquired only in institutions 
of collegiate grade. Those whose positions fall in the intermediate groups 
are the subject of special consideration. They do not need as extensive 
training as do those who will enter into the more responsible executive 
positions, yet their functions require that they make decisions of greater 
significance than do persons in positions involving clerical routines. It is 
possible that in the future special short courses in administration, above 
the high-school level but not directly connected with the formal university 
courses, may be found to be the solution of the training problem for this 

The educational system of the state should provide training for those 
who are to fit into the business structure according to their individual 
capacities. It is a waste of state funds to attempt to train individuals for 

Commerce and Business Education 59 

positions beyond their indicated abilities. Furthermore, it is contrary to the 
best interests of the individual to attempt to equip him for occupations 
far above those which he may be expected to fill in later life. The higher 
administrative positions are bound to be relatively scarce, and the compe- 
tition for placement will result in a high degree of selection. Only the 
best-trained and keenest minds can hope to arrive at the top of the admin- 
istrative ladder. The great bulk of the positions in business will be of the 
clerical type, and training of a vocational character for these positions will 
obviously be provided in the secondary schools and those of junior-college 

One institution with professional standing and a carefully selected 
student body can meet the needs of the state for training for positions on 
the higher administrative levels. 

The Collegiate School of Business 

The objective of the collegiate school of business is to train individuals 
who may be expected ultimately to occupy positions of administrative 
responsibility. These persons will be making decisions affecting production 
activities, the marketing of products and services, or the financing of enter- 
prises. They are the ones who will be called upon to determine the policies 
for the direct utilization of the state's resources. They should be the 
business leaders of twenty years after graduation. Every state needs indi- 
viduals at the head of its business enterprises who are equipped to exercise 
judgment and leadership. The present economic depression gives us a good 
illustration of the need for better-trained executives. 

Although the ultimate objective of a collegiate school of business may 
be stated in such ambitious terms, it is nevertheless true that its graduates 
will not be placed immediately in positions of responsibility. Their respon- 
sibilities in the first positions held will be very slight indeed. A great part 
of the equipment of the business leaders must be obtained from practical 
experience, and a period of apprenticeship must follow the college course. 
This is not true of business training alone, however. The law schools do 
not turn out great corporation lawyers or jurists; the medical schools do not 
place renowned surgeons immediately upon graduation; a great teacher is 
discovered years after he has received his degree in a college of education. 
All these institutions are planning their curriculums with the idea of giving 
a basic training that will be supplemented by experience. In the end it is 
hoped, however, that the individual will arrive in a place of leadership in 
his chosen field. The collegiate school of business aims to train for the 
major executive positions in production, marketing, and finance, and in 
certain specialized fields such as accounting, statistics, and economics. All 
those who occupy such positions are called upon to make decisions regarding 
major policies. 

A person who is expected to exercise discretion with respect to deter- 
mining policies in a highly complex society must be equipped with a broad 
background. He should have an understanding of the evolutionary character 
of human institutions. He should know something of the economic structure 
of the many institutions which play an important part in the business life 
of the community. He should be able to see beyond the immediate, super- 

60 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

ficial circumstances in economic phenomena to the fundamental causes of 
change. He is not a technician, but a formulator of broad policies. His 
training, therefore, should be of a broad character. 

Curriculum: The curriculum should provide both professional training 
in business and a broad theoretical background. There are a few institu- 
tions in America that provide for professional training in a condensed form 
after all the background courses have been completed. This is true of the 
Graduate Schools of Business Administration at Harvard and Stanford. 
These institutions could be far removed from arts colleges if proper library 
resources were available. Most institutions of business education, however, 
are of the four-year type. North Carolina is best equipped to offer this type 
of instruction. In a four-year course it is desirable to have the background 
courses offered concurrently with the professional. It thus becomes con- 
venient to have the work offered on the same campus with a well-organized 
college of liberal arts. A curriculum organized to meet the needs of North 
Carolina should include the following: 

1. Tool Courses: Accounting and statistics are the basic tools of 
quantitative measurement essential to the analysis of business problems. 
These subjects, together with elementary courses in economics, should be 
available at the junior-college level. 

2. Social Sciences: Emphasis should be placed upon courses in history, 
political science, and the other social sciences with a view to providing the 
student with a clear understanding of the relation of business to the more 
general interests of the community. 

3. Sciences and Mathematics: Modern business is dependent in a large 
measure upon science. Chemistry and physics form a background for the 
development of productive processes and techniques. A student in business 
should be equipped with some knowledge of these basic sciences as an aid 
in understanding modern industrial processes. Mathematics is essential 
as an aid in interpreting the statements of business activities, as quantitative 
measurements are becoming more important administrative devices. Pro- 
vision, therefore, should be made for some training in the field of math- 

4. Economics: Economics, particularly economic theory, is an essential 
part of the equipment of the trained executive. It is only through a 
thorough knowledge of economic principles that a person is able to interpret 
the forces controlling the fluctuations in business activity. Every student 
in business administration should have a training in economic theory, beyond 
the principles usually presented in a junior-college course. 

5. Professional Courses: A business curriculum should provide oppor- 
tunities for specialization in the several fields of modern business organiza- 
tion: professional accounting, marketing and merchandising, banking and 
finance, statistics, etc. 

6. Elective Cultural Courses: The business student's training is not 
complete unless he has come in contact with disciplines entirely different 
from those which may contribute directly to success in his occupation. 
Sufficient leeway should be provided in an organized curriculum to enable 
the student to elect courses in such subjects as literature, philosophy, and 
modern languages. 

Commerce and Business Education 61 

Laboratory Facilities: In addition to the courses enumerated above 
and the library facilities that a first-class university provides, a school of 
business administration should be so equipped as to afford some laboratory 
experience in the types of business predominant in the state. Business 
conditions can not be duplicated in a controlled laboratory such as the 
physical laboratories in engineering, the clinics in the medical school, or 
the practice courts in law. A student may come in contact with business 
conditions only by direct observation of actual concerns. Provision, there- 
fore, should be made for such contacts with business organizations in North 
Carolina as will provide a proper laboratory training. There are practically 
no business concerns in Chapel Hill and not a great variety in Raleigh. 
Good roads, however, make it possible to travel considerable distances to the 
industrial centers of the state. It is possible to secure the type of laboratory 
training needed either by frequent visits to commercial, financial, and 
industrial institutions, or by the introduction of a modified form of the 
cooperative plan. If the business concerns of the state are interested in 
contributing to the training of executives, they might aid by entering into a 
cooperative program with the school. 

Several executives of business concerns of North Carolina expressed 
themselves as being very much interested in the development of an educa- 
tional program in business-administration. It was evident that they are 
aware of the needs in this field and are ready to contribute their services in 
developing a well-organized cooperative program. 

Under this plan students would be given work on a full-time basis for 
varying periods of time during their university course. In this way the 
student would come in contact with actual business methods before com- 
pleting his academic work. Such a plan is desirable in that it gives the 
student some insight into the methods of business operation. It makes him 
somewhat familiar with business methods and also opens problems that 
give more reality to the theoretical discussions of the classroom. 

Research: The fact that the state is becoming more highly indus- 
trialized makes the responsibilities of the University in the field of research 
more important. The state has supported research programs in agriculture 
for many years. These have had a profound effect upon the agricultural 
interests of the state. Not only have more scientific methods of farming 
been introduced, but these research projects have aided in the fields of 
marketing and financing as well. 

As other forms of industry evolve in the economic life of the state, 
reesarch in these fields becomes essential. Research in technology will, of 
necessity, be left to the engineering and technical schools. The organization 
of the productive resources of the state in the interests of the community, 
however, is of equal importance. North Carolina is in a strategic position 
for economic leadership in the South. A program of research into the 
resources of the region is a requisite of a planned economic development. 
Much is being said at present about the possibilities of economic planning 
as a basis for national employment stabilization. It may safely be said that 
little can be expected in the way of a plan of economic control along national 
lines until more is known about regional conditions. 

The United States is divided into certain well-defined economic regions, 
each with its own distinctive characteristics. A rational plan of development 

62 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

calls for careful analysis of the facts. It is incumbent upon the organized 
school of business to ascertain the facts and even formulate sound policies 
for development. The state should look to its School of Commerce for 
guidance in this field just as it looks to other divisions of the University 
for leadership in public health programs and a development of educational 
policies. As an illustration of the type of research that should be expected 
in a school of business administration, the following questions may be 

1. What are the resources of the state? 

2. How may these best be utilized in promoting its welfare? 

3. "Which industries are growing and may be expected to increase in 

4. Which are declining and may be expected to be of less importance 
in the future? 

5. W T hat are the competing conditions in each industry? 

6. What are the factors that cause factories to migrate into or out of 
the region? 

7. What markets exist both for raw materials and for finished products 
of the industries in the region? 

S. What constitutes a sound policy of taxation? 

It may readily be seen that answers to these questions are of signifi- 
cance to business interests and civic organizations in directing the economic 
development of the state. The State of North Carolina has relied upon the 
University to some extent in the past for advice and counsel on some of 
these questions. Special mention might be made of the services of the 
School of Commerce in formulating the State's present tax policies. Indi- 
vidually certain members of the staff have also contributed to research in 
industry. Professor Murchison's treatise on the textile industry is an 
illustration of the type of work that should be promoted. The point should 
be emphasized that the state should have available a group of research 
scholars who are equipped to examine critically the pressing economic 
problems of the region. 

Faculty Leadership: A faculty of a professional school should exercise 
leadership beyond the limits of the classroom. There are many problems 
in the consideration of which the disinterested opinions of scientifically 
trained persons are invaluable. As problems arise in industry the business 
men of the state should feel that they can rely upon the faculty of the 
school of business administration for advice and counsel. This does not 
mean that the faculty should ever indulge in propaganda or that they 
should be financially interested in business concerns. Their attitude should 
be strictly objective and disinterested. Thus a faculty is able to exercise 
leadership of the greatest value. It may be said that this type of service 
has not hitherto been rendered to any great extent by collegiate schools of 
business in the United States. This situation is doubtless due to the fact 
that schools have not yet developed sufficiently to warrant the confidence that 
is necessary for the performance of such service. 

Perhaps the best illustration of what is meant in this connection is 
afforded by the development of the Agricultural Experiment Station and the 
Agricultural Agent. These institutions have been invaluable to agriculture. 
There is no reason why the University should not afford the same type of 

Commerce and Business Education 63 

service in other fields involving the production, marketing, and financing 
of the industrial products of the state. 

Relative Advantages of Chapel Hill and Raleigh 

In the preceding pages the position of a collegiate school of business 
in the educational system has been considered. This discussion has covered 
the curriculum, the laboratory facilities, research services, and faculty 
leadership in the community. The points brought out regarding these factors 
may be used as a basis for appraising the institutions that are at present 
located at Chapel Hill and Raleigh. 

There is a School of Commerce at the University at Chapel Hill and a 
School of Science and Business at the College of Agriculture and Engineering 
at Raleigh. An analysis of their published bulletins indicates that they both 
have the same objective. Furthermore, they both offer courses in the same 
subjects. There is apparently a complete duplication in these respects. If 
one were to base his judgment entirely on the published statements of the 
two schools, there would be little to choose between them; the consolidation 
could be effected in one location as well as the other. A closer examination 
of the facilities afforded for the type of training and services to the state 
described in the preceding pages, however, does reveal some very striking 
differences. Comparisons may be made on the basis of the general statement 
of aims and objectives of a collegiate school of business. 

Curriculum: Taking first, then, the subject of the curriculum, we may 
examine the facilities afforded in the two institutions. 

1. Tool Courses: The two institutions are equally well equipped to 
give the necessary instruction in accounting, statistics, and the principles of 
economics, which constitute the basic tool courses in commerce. These 
subjects are offered in the first and second years and can be provided in any 
first-class junior college. 

2. Social Sciences: The departments affording instruction in history, 
political science, and other social sciences are better equipped at Chapel 
Hill than at Raleigh. Furthermore, in the consolidation of these institutions 
work in these fields will be further concentrated at Chapel Hill. 

3. Sciences and Mathematics: The two institutions afford essentially 
the same opportunities for instruction in the basic sciences and mathematics. 
From this standpoint there can be little to choose between the two locations. 

4. Economics: Economics forms the essential background of all the 
Avork in business. It would be extremely unfortunate to separate the tech- 
nical courses in business from the general advanced courses in economics. 
Furthermore, it is desirable that members of the staff in economics should 
be called upon to give instruction in some of the more technical subjects. 
It is, therefore, of utmost importance that the School of Commerce should 
be located in the same place as the Department of Economics and that the 
two should be under the same administrative control. 

There are several reasons why the Department of Economics should 
be retained at Chapel Hill. Since this is one of the important fields of social 
science, it is necessary to have a well-organized department of economics 
in a liberal arts college. The Department of Economics is a' service division 
offering courses to students specializing in other fields. These relationships 

64 Report to N. C. Commission ox University Consolidation 

have been developed to a high degree at Chapel Hill. Courses in economics 
are offered to students specializing in law, education, and the several 
specialties in the Liberal Arts College. It would be impossible to transfer 
the economics work to another location and still maintain the same quality 
of instruction in other divisions of the University. 

The economics department also offers graduate work both to those 
majoring in this field and as supplementary work to students majoring in 
other subjects. As a service department for the Graduate School, it would 
necessarily be maintained on the same campus with other graduate depart- 
ments. Furthermore, the library facilities in economics have been developed 
at Chapel Hill. Superior work in advanced undergraduate courses and in 
the Graduate School is dependent upon adequate reference materials. It 
should be assumed, therefore, that the service functions of the economics 
department should be retained at Chapel Hill. 

5. Professional Courses: Both institutions are at present offering a 
rather wide variety of technical courses in accounting, marketing, and 
finance. If the facilities for this type of instruction were considered sep- 
arately from the other parts of the curriculum, the institution could be 
located in either place. It is desirable, however, as mentioned above, that 
some of the members of the faculty in economics be called upon to offer 
courses of a technical sort. The professional courses therefore, should 
preferably be conducted on the same campus as the courses in economics. 

6. Elective Cultural Courses: The College of Liberal Arts at Chapel 
Hill affords the largest opportunity for a broad selection of the cultural 
courses that are desirable in rounding out the commerce student's cur- 

In weighing the significance of the various elements in the commerce 
curriculum, it may be seen that the facilities at Chapel Hill surpass those 
at Raleigh and that, therefore, it is desirable to concentrate instruction in 
business at Chapel Hill. 

Laboratory Facilities: The laboratory facilities in the two locations are 
essentially the same. It is true that Raleigh is a larger city and therefore 
affords somewhat more in the way of business activity. The distances, 
however, are not very great and the means of transportation are such that 
Chapel Hill does not suffer because of its size. Furthermore, the city of 
Durham is near enough to Chapel Hill to afford practically as convenient a 
laboratory as do the business institutions of Raleigh. In other words, the 
students can be given essentially the same type of laboratory experience in 
either location. 

Research: Chapel Hill offers greater opportunities for research of the 
type suggested than may be found at Raleigh. The library has accumulated 
a vast amount of material in the field of economics that is invaluable in 
conducting research projects. 

Faculty Leadership: It is not the function of this commission to con- 
sider in detail the personal qualifications of the faculties of the institutions 
being examined. It may be assumed that if the schools at Raleigh and 
Chapel Hill are consolidated, the promising men on the faculties of both 
institutions will be retained. The members of the teaching staffs may be 
considered as mobile factors in the consolidated program. Savings and 
economies resulting from the elimination of duplications can be applied to 

Commerce and Business Education 65 

the development of a faculty personnel second to none in the United States. 

This statement should not be taken as a criticism of the existing facul- 
ties. There are several outstanding men on the staffs of the existing schools. 
Some of these have turned out work that has had a far-reaching influence. 
The faculties of both institutions are made up largely of young men who 
are developing in their respective fields. As the institutions grow older, 
the average age of the members of their teaching and research staffs will 
tend to increase. A constructive policy would provide for retaining those 
who had demonstrated most clearly a capacity to exercise the type of 
leadership desired, in order to avoid the consequences that would result 
from merely allowing an aging process to mature the staff. 

There are several members of the present staff who should be retained 
in spite of the competition for their services that will soon be manifest. 
Some of them have published materials in recent years that have added 
materially to their reputations and have attracted the attention of other 
institutions. From the long-time point of view, it will be desirable to pick 
out a group of well-trained and promising members of the present faculty 
as a nucleus for the development of the instructional and research staff of 
the future. These men should be expected to formulate the broad policies 
and to exercise the influence necessary for the molding of the institution. 

Some members of the faculty have had business experience, although 
the majority have not. Some provision should be made whereby members of 
the staff of the School of Commerce could secure direct, first-hand contacts 
with business organizations. This, perhaps, may best be provided by en- 
couraging members of the staff to secure employment in business during 
their leaves of absence from the University. 

Student Body 

If the two schools should be consolidated and located at Chapel Hill, the 
question would arise as to the effect of such movement upon the enrollment. 
Would the number of students seeking admission to the consolidated school 
be equal to the sum of the enrollment in the two existing schools? One can 
only speculate on the answer to this question. It is quite likely, however, 
that a number of the students now attending the State College in Raleigh 
would not enroll at Chapel Hill. As a matter of fact, it might be desirable 
to limit the number of registrants in accordance with the demonstrated need 
of the state for graduates in business administration. 

The standards for admission would in some measure serve as a bar to 
a great influx of students. While it has been impossible to conduct a 
thorough examination of the present student bodies, some data were obtained 
pertaining to the make-up of the enrollments in the two institutions. As 
regards geographical distribution, so far as could be seen from the registra- 
tion statistics there is very little difference in the sources of the student 
bodies. Naturally there are more students giving their home address as 
Raleigh at the State College, but those who register from outlying points are 
rather widely distributed among both the student bodies. 

An attempt was also made to determine the source of students with 
respect to their economic backgrounds. Not enough information was avail- 
able to make possible any broad generalization. From what data were 
available, however, it appeared that both institutions draw from the same 

66 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

type of home. There are included among the parents of students business 
men, professional men, farmers, and laborers. 

Further information on this question was supplied from the statistics 
regarding standard deviations on the high-school tests of students entering 
the commerce and business administration courses in the two institutions. 
These tables are given in an appended statement (Appendix C). It appears 
from these reports that the scholastic standing of the students entering the 
University at Chapel Hill is somewhat higher than that of the students 
entering the State College at Raleigh. There is, therefore, some reason for 
assuming that there has been in the past some degree of selectivity in the 
student bodies. 

Instruction at the Intermediate Level 

There are many young men and women who desire some instruction of 
collegiate grade who are clearly unable to qualify for administrative positions 
at the higher levels. A great many of these individuals are at present 
endeavoring to complete the regular four-year courses in business. This 
situation is evident not only in the institutions of North Carolina, but in 
practically every other four-year school. As was stated earlier in this 
report, the cost of carrying these students is a needless waste of public funds 
and the futile effort is detrimental to the best interests of the individuals 

A possible alternative procedure to that of encouraging these students 
to attempt to complete a regular four-year course would be to organize 
special vocational courses terminating in a much shorter period. These 
would lead to specific positions in the business concerns of the state, in- 
cluding positions as salesmen and clerks, classified civil service positions 
at the intermediate levels, and some of the bookkeeping and office practice 

In accordance with the suggestions made in Chapter II for placing the 
institution at Raleigh on a junior college basis, it might be desirable to plan 
courses for these specialized occupations at the intermediate level. In this 
case the courses in business at Raleigh would become strictly vocational in 
character. The work should be designed to meet the needs of those students 
who have completed high school but who should not be encouraged to attempt 
a four-year college course. This plan, however, should not be introduced 
until after a thorough-going study has been made of the needs of the state 
for individuals trained in these intermediate, specialized occupations and 
also the type of training needed to equip students for such positions. 

Training for Commercial Teachers 

The qualifications for commercial teachers in North Carolina are set 
forth in Educational Publication No. 138 of the State Board of Education. 
The requirements include, in addition to the general requirements for the 
high-school certificate, the completion of forty-five semester hours in com- 
merce, including stenography, typewriting, bookkeeping, and office manage- 
ment. In present-day secondary commercial education, emphasis is placed 
upon the clerical techniques. Undoubtedly commerce courses in high schools 
will continue to specialize in such subjects as stenography, typewriting and 
bookkeeping. There is little else in the business administration field that 

Commerce and Business Education 67 

lends itself to teaching at the high-school level. It is therefore unlikely 
that any great changes in the curriculum for teacher training will be effected 
in the near future. Furthermore, it is likely that most of the commercial 
teaching positions will continue to be held by women. This one reason for 
developing the course in commercial education at the Women's College at 

The courses arranged for commercial teachers are also needed in the 
development of a secretarial science curriculum. This field is also practically 
preempted by women. The secretarial courses, therefore, might well be 
maintained at Greensboro. In the secretarial course it is desirable to in- 
clude several other subjects in the field of economics and business. These 
additional subjects, however, could be provided either by transporting the 
students to Chapel Hill and enrolling them in the general courses offered 
there, or by designating a professor from Chapel Hill to teach one or two 
days a week at Greensboro. Except for this supplementary requirement 
for the students in secretarial science, practically no additional staff, beyond 
that in the present economics department, would be needed to develop the 
work in commercial education and secretarial science. 

It would be necessary, however, to develop further the instruction in 
shorthand and typewriting. This work is now being given as a side interest 
by the college treasurer. A full-time instructor should be obtained to develop 
this work on an adequate basis. 

There is appended to this report a statement of a program of secre- 
tarial courses that could be introduced at the College for Women, which 
would meet the state teaching requirements in education and also would not 
require additions to the staff of the College (Appendix D). 

Economies and Business Courses at Raleigh 

The curriculums in agriculture and in the technical fields at Raleigh 
would still require instruction in economics and business, though the work in 
commerce should be moved to Chapel Hill. The needs of students in these 
fields, however, for courses in economics and business are quite modest 
as compared with the present available offerings. The Department of Agri- 
cultural Economics now offers most of the work in general economics that 
would be needed. In addition to the present offerings, provision should be 
made for courses in the principles of accounting, in cost accounting, and 
perhaps one in production management and one in marketing organization. 
The number of subjects, therefore, that should be offered is limited. To the 
extent that students require other courses beyond this rather restricted 
program, it would be possible to require them to attend classes at Chapel 
Hill, or faculty members from Chapel Hill could give work at Raleigh. 

Coordination of Business Training 

It is recommended that the work in business and economics at Raleigh 
in the future be organized primarily as service courses. This, of course, 
is exclusive of the work in agricultural economics, which should be carried 
on in the future just as it is at present, subject to the recommendations 
made in Chapter II. All the specialized and professional work in commerce 
and administration will thus be restricted to the School of Commerce at 

68 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

Chapel Hill. Consideration should be given to the possibility of developing 
less-than-four-year courses of a specialized vocational character at Raleigh 
as previously indicated under Instruction at the Intermediate Level. 

Significance of Physical Separation 

The physical plants at Raleigh and Chapel Hill are approximately thirty 
miles apart. The campus at Greensboro is about fifty miles from Chapel 
Hill. There are excellent roads connecting these campuses which enable a 
person to make the trip in a relatively short time. The location of a con- 
solidated School of Commerce at Chapel Hill would not seriously incon- 
venience students at the other institutions who desired to take specialized 
work in that field. If the demand for special work should be somewhat 
limited, the students could be transported economically to the class. If, on 
the other hand, a rather large group of students demanded a special course, 
it would be more economical to ask the professor in charge to conduct a 
section of his class on the other campus. The savings effected by the 
elimination of needless duplication would far outweigh the incidental costs 
involved in transporting either the students or the faculty. 

Possible Savings as a Result of Consolidation 

It would be difficult to estimate the extent of savings that might be 
effected by consolidation. Probably the immediate savings would not be 
very great. The total salary budget in commerce for Chapel Hill, as of 
March 1, 1932, is $49,456, while that for Raleigh is $29,034. Obviously it 
would be impossible to save even a major part of the Raleigh budget by 
consolidation. It would be necessary to increase the personnel of the staff 
at Chapel Hill and at the same time it would be necessary to retain at 
Raleigh a few members of the staff in order to give the service courses 
that would be required. The money savings, therefore, Avould not be evi- 
denced immediately, but would result from a better coordination of the 
work in the future and would become clearly evident as expansions were 

Some savings would be made possible by increasing the class sizes, 
enabling one staff member to give instruction to a larger number of students. 
There are now on the combined staffs of the two institutions twenty-five 
teaching members and three student assistants. A careful study of the course 
offerings and possibilities for increasing class size would determine the 
number of staff members necessary on a consolidated program. It seems 
reasonable to assume that the work could be carried on effectively with a 
smaller number on the consolidated staff than are at present employed in 
the two institutions. 

Summary of Recommendations 

The following are the specific recommendations contained in this report: 

1. There should be one institution for training in business at the 
higher level. 

2. The standards of the institution should be of the highest rank, both 
in the selection of the student body and in the type of faculty personnel. 

3. The School of Commerce should be located at Chapel Hill. This 
recommendation is based upon the following considerations: 

Commerce and Business Education 69 

a. The facilities for affording a broad curriculum are better 
than at Raleigh. 

b. The research facilities are more adequate. 

c. The service aspects of the Department of Economics and 
the School of Commerce require a specific program at 
Chapel Hill, regardless of the location of the School of 

4. The courses in commercial education and secretarial science should 
be located at Greensboro. 

5. The possibility of adopting a plan of business training at the inter- 
mediate level, for those students who are not adapted to the complete 
four-year program but would be benefited by a shorter intensive training 
course, should be considered. 

6. The present arrangement at Chapel Hill, by which business admin- 
istration and economics are combined under one head, should be continued. 



Certain General Considerations 

The growth of non-campus instructions in North Carolina has been 
greatest during the decade 1920-30. There has arisen a recognition of the 
desirability of state-provided facilities for study — variously termed university 
or college extension, extra-mural work, and adult education — for a large 
section of the population which otherwise would have no direct contact with 
the institutions of higher learning within the state. In addition to the 
State University, the College for Women, and the State College, other state 
and private institutions have dipped lightly into the field until at present 
thei people of the state are offered a wide variety of subject-matter choices, 
with a corresponding variety in the quality of work offered, a variance in the 
rates charged for such service, and with differing policies on such questions 
as college credit for work performed, fees charged, remuneration to in- 
structors, etc. 

While there has been no central coordinated plan for the state, still 
instances of overlapping and wasteful competition among the three large 
state institutions chiefly under examination here have been rare. This is 
the result of an admirable spirit of cooperation among the three extension 
units, supplemented by frequent conferences on the part of the directing 
heads. It may be said flatly that there is no duplication of effort within 
given geographical areas. The only instances in which classes have been 
offered by one institution in territory primarily served by another, are those 
in which the subject matter requested could not conveniently be supplied 
by the latter institution. North Carolina is to be congratulated upon this 
division of the load; direct cooperation in extension instruction has been a 
forerunner of the plan for the new University. 

Unfortunately, similar avoidance of duplication has not always been 
possible so far as the private institutions offering extension work have been 
concerned. Not only have there been duplication and competition, but at 
least one college is now offering extension class work on a competitive basis 
— a particularly dangerous situation since the work, which is offered for 
credit, has been popularized to such an extent that the quality of instruction 
given is open to question. 

The formation in 1930 of the North Carolina Association of College 
Extension Representatives, with five standard colleges participating in 
addition to the three major state institutions, is a step in the direction of 
avoidance of future difficulties. The eight members of this Association have 
adopted the standards governing extension credit courses outlined by the 
National University Extension Association, of which the University of North 
Carolina is a member. Avoidance of duplication is one of the avowed pur- 
poses of this Association. Its hand is further strengthened by its repre- 
sentation on the Committee on Extension Work of the North Carolina College 
Conference. This Conference concerns itself with the scholastic standards 
of extension work offered for college credit, including such matters as. 
character and content of courses, conditions of admission, examinations,, 
salaries, teaching load, certification of teachers, etc. 

Adult Education 71 

In any coordinated plan of extension instruction for the state, it will 
be well to bear in mind the desirability, if not the necessity, of having the 
private colleges affiliated. In this connection, consideration should be given 
to the probability that Duke University eventually will feel called to enter 
this sphere of activity and that its faculty, particularly in certain of the 
professional fields, will provide an admirable additional reservoir upon 
which to draw for the instructional needs of the adult population. Again, of 
the three state teachers colleges two are already offering extra-mural work 
by correspondence, and all three should be considered as potential partici- 
pants in such a plan. 

Consideration of any coordinated state plan for extension service is 
based on the assumption that adult education facilities will be maintained 
in part at state expense. The North Carolina practice in this regard, while 
liberal, is not by any means unique, since elaborate services are maintained 
in many states, notably in California, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. Of the 
Southern states, North Carolina, Virginia, and Texas have the most com- 
plete systems; and each, it should be stated, has insisted upon relatively 
high standards. 

Any attempt to forecast the future development of adult education 
within a state must take into account the agencies, local in scope, upon 
which the responsibility for the effort may be expected to rest. A state-wide 
system of university extension is at best a supplementary service; local 
initiative and local facilities must play the leading part. Nevertheless the 
state must look forward to the expansion and improvement of all state-wide 
activities which will contribute to the achievement of its purpose, an en- 
lightened populace. It is false economy for a state to disregard its duty in 
this respect. Failure to maintain, improve, and expand, through proper 
financial suport, a potent series of agencies making for good citizenship 
results in a lowered quality of citizenship. The consequent loss to the state 
in constructing and maintaining remedial agencies far exceeds the outlay 
for adult education as a preventive and a prophylactic, to say nothing of 
the increased happiness, prosperity, and usefulness of the recipients of such 
education. To state the case extremely, the state must make its choice, in 
behalf of its populace, between expenditures for educators and expenditures 
for penologists. 

The local agencies which will be most concerned with adult education 
in the future are three in number: the school, the library, and the church. 
In the northern and middle western portions of the United States, the use 
of the churches for secular education, under the control of educational 
authority is increasing, as the churches come to realize the desirability of 
such a program. That this trend will spread to the South seems inevitable, 
although efforts at education in the churches of this part of the country 
have met with difficulties in the form of ecclesiastical censorship of the 
instructional materials offered. Libraries in North Carolina provide some 
local means of assistance to education for adults, although the libraries are 
too few in number and inadequately equipped as to auditoriums, etc., for 
any extensive participation. Their future availability, along with the 
churches, as local bases for community efforts should not be overlooked. 

With their steady improvement in plants and equipment, the public 
schools seem to be the most likely and hospitable base for much of the adult 

72 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

effort. North Carolina's pride in her school investments should not be 
limited to a visualization of their use for children only. There is no finer 
social center in a community than the smoothly functioning, efficiently ad- 
ministered public school. Particularly is this true as consolidation increas- 
ingly results in improved schoolhouse facilities. Auditoriums, recreation 
equipment, gymnasiums, and virtually all the paraphernalia of the modern 
school are usable by the parents and friends of children, as well as by chil- 
dren themselves. And in most cases, these plants lie idle during more 
hours of the week than they are in use. Afternoon, evening, and week-end 
schools for adults are more than possibilities — they are strong probabilities; 
and, in fact, they already exist in many communities, notably in California. 
The increased expense is slight, and the financial outlay is willingly borne 
by the community as soon as it becomes familiar with the benefits to be 
enjoyed. The school center as a medium for the social expression of a 
community is an important factor to be recokned with in North Carolina. 
The excellent work with adults done by Mrs. Elizabeth C. Morriss and her 
associates in the public schools of Buncombe County is an indication of the 
extent to which such programs are acceptable to the public. But there is 
opportunity to extend this idea far beyond the needs of the educationally 
handicapped, for the need is felt all the more keenly by the so-called 

It would be the height of folly to outline a plan for state-wide extension 
service without providing for the fullest and heartiest cooperation of the 
school authority. The State Superintendent of Public Instruction should be 
at the heart and center of any such development. 

It may be alleged that the consideration, at a time of financial depression 
and enforced economy, of any such larger program as has here been partially 
outlined is unwise. Our economic history, however, indicates that the 
depression will pass and that, after an uncertain and difficult period, prog- 
ress, particularly in education, will return. It should be the function of 
such a report as this to assist in wise planning for the efficient and econom- 
ical use of state and local agencies when normal conditions have reappeared. 
A properly coordinated state plan, which has not heretofore existed, will 
prevent much duplication of effort and waste of the taxpayers' money in 
the long run. 

The sections which immediately follow deal with the extent and char- 
acter of extension offerings now available in North Carolina, together with a 
brief description of the machinery in existence necessary to supply the needs 
of these services, certain comment on the administrative and financial 
problems which they involve, and certain suggestions as to their development. 
An attempt has been made to avoid unnecessary detail, and little effort has 
been made to enlarge upon the high importance to the people of the state of 
all parts of the program now in operation. 

University of North Carolina 

The extension offerings of the University of North Carolina may be 
classified roughly under three headings: extension classes, correspondence 
work, and special activities. The latter include the widely used Extension 
Library Service and the considerable group of services to schools. Since 
the establishment of the extension work in 1912 (and its subsequent re- 

Adult Education 


organization in 1921) the University has appropriated for these activities 
annual sums varying from $600 (in 1912-13) to $66,111 (in 1928-29). The 
following table indicates the amounts received from appropriations and from 
fees, with the percentage of self-support, since the reorganization of the 
Extension Bureau into an Extension Division in 1921. 


Expenditures for Extension by the University 






52,000. OOf 

$ 4,538.14 



1922-23.. - 









1931-32 1 

* Based on actual expenditures 

t Amount appropriated; amount used, $50,353.10. 

t Appropriation reduced to $28,000.00. 

Table III clearly indicates that individual citizens have been able and 
willing to expend dollar for dollar with the state in the furtherance of their 
own education. Increased University apropriations have in every case 
brought about corresponding increases in income from student fees, and the 
University has thus been able to conduct for the direct benefit of North 
Carolina citizens a $125,000-a-year enterprise for an annual expenditure of 
about half that amount from state funds. 

The expenditure of the annual gross sum available has been aproxi- 
mately as follows: for class instruction, 32 per cent; for correspondence 
instruction, 30 per cent; for the extension library, 10 per cent; for high- 
school activities, 5 per cent; for lectures and short courses, 3 per cent; for 
the Bureau of Municipal Government, 2 per cent; for organization and 
administration, 18 per cent. 

In the field of class instruction, the three chief items of expenditure 
are for salaries and fees to instructors, 21 per cent; for travel and sub- 
sistence of instructors and organizers, 7 per cent; and for books, 2 per cent. 
The percentage given in each case is of the total amount expended for 
extension instruction, not of the amount expended for class instruction 

Percentages similarly arrived at for correspondence instruction are: 
20 per cent for salaries and fees to instructors, 4.5 per cent for books, and 
2.5 per cent for postage. 

74 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

In the extension library, the chief item percentages of the total amount 
for extension are 6.5 per cent for administrative salaries and wages, and 
1.5 per cent each for books and for postage. Of the total, 4 per cent are 
spent for salaries and direction in the work in high-school debating and 
athletics, 3 per cent for salaries in the Bureau of Lectures and Short Courses, 
and 2 per cent for salaries in the Bureau of Municipal Government. The 
work in visual instruction is carried on with a budget of $55 — less than 1/20 
of 1 per cent of the total expended for extension at the University. 

The general administrative allocation of 18 per cent is divided into 11 
per cent for salaries, fees, and wages; 4.5 per cent for publications; with 
the remaining 2.5 per cent distributed among supplies, equipment, postage, 
motor vehicle upkeep, repairs, and the like. 

To generalize from these figures: about 60 per cent of the total are 
expended upon class and correspondence instruction, which are the chief 
revenue-producing activities. The special activities take an additional 20 to 
25 per cent, chief among them being the highly important Extension Library 
Service. The figure of 18 per cent for administrative overhead is misleading, 
in that 4.5 per cent should be deducted for the publications program of the 
Division. The resultant 13.5 per cent for administration is modest, par- 
ticularly when it is borne in mind that the central administrative staff is 
called upon not only to maintain its own business office and supervisory 
service, but to render various general university services, including the 
editorial supervision that ordinarily would be made chargeable to a uni- 
versity press. 

Measuring the expenditures against the income derived from activi- 
ties, bureau by bureau, it is found that class instruction pay 7 2 per cent 
of its own way; correspondence instruction, 84 per cent; the extension 
library, 54 per cent; lectures, 4 per cent; high-school debating, 13 per 
cent; and community drama, 51 per cent. These percentages are not 
weighted for administrative overhead. Reference will be made to them 
in the discussion of each activity. 

Class Instruction: During the year 19 30-31, when it may be con- 
sidered that the Extension Division was carrying a normal load, the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina conducted extension classes in 3 9 communities, 
the total number of classes organized being 137. In these classes 1,183 
individuals participated, making a total of 3,203 course registration. The 
corresponding figures for 1931-32 (estimated) are 21 centers, 88 classes, 
900 individuals, and 1,510 registrations. The indicated drop of 50 per 
cent is attributable to the curtailment in the University appropriation for 
this purpose and the corresponding curtailment in fees received, to the 
suspension of the rule requiring renewal of teachers' certificates by the 
State Board of Education, and to the general effect of the economic de- 
pression upon individual incomes. The question of teacher certification is 
particularly pertinent, since from 8 5 to 90 percent of those enrolling in 
these classes from year to year are teachers, who utilize the University 
Extension Division to meet the state's requirements for continued study. 

Geographically, the spread of this work is from Madison and Haywood 
counties in the west to Pasquotank and Beaufort counties in the east, 
from Caswell and Person counties in the north to Columbus and New 

Adult Education 75 

Hanover counties in the extreme south. The University has evidently 
felt the obligation to meet demands in outlying centers quite aside from 
the question either of free income or of travel economy. The average 
distance of an extension class from Chapel Hill is 141 miles, though 
actually this figure has been materially reduced through the employment 
of full-time extension instructors who reside in those territories which 
they particularly serve. 

It should be stated that none of these classes is geographically 
situated within an area which either of the other state institutions is pre- 
pared to serve. Roughly, the College for Women serves northwestern 
North Carolina; the State College operates in the southeastern portion of 
the state. It has been the duty of the University to serve all other areas 
in which a demand might be expressed. 

The fee charge by the University for the usual two-unit course is $10. 
The average enrollment is from twelve to fifteen individuals to a class, 
a decrease from the standard of two years ago, when from twenty to 
twenty-five constituted the average registration. 

The subjects offered in the past two years, arranged according to 
number of registrations, are: education (by far the heaviest enrollment); 
sociology, social science, and rural social economics (less than half the en- 
rollment in education); natural science, including geology (slightly less 
than in the social subjects); music and the fine arts; physical education; 
library science; psychology; history; accounting; life insurance; econo- 
mics; and botany. Mention should also be made of the postgraduate 
medical courses offered through the Extension Division during the eight 
years ending in 1928, in which a total of 905 doctors were enrolled in 
classes held in forty-four centers. 

The instructional load in extension classes is now being carried by 
eight full-time extension instructors, six of whom are members of the 
faculty of the School of Education but without campus teaching duties. 
These instructors are teaching all the extension classes offered with the 
exception of one course. In normal years, it has been the practice to 
utilize, in addition, eight to ten instructors from the regular faculty in 
Chapel Hill, who conduct their extension work as a marginal activity. 

All, or nearly all, of those taking extension class work are enrolled 
for college credit. The University at present is conducting only one non- 
credit course, for a group of clubwomen. The administrative costs, there- 
fore, of handling this group are relatively high, since record-handling, 
certification, etc., assume importance. 

Full-time instructors are remunerated on a salary basis commensurate 
with their rank in the faculty of the School of Education. The range is 
from $1,800.00 to $4,000.00 -- evidence of the University's intention to 
maintain high instructional quality off the campus as well as on. Regular 
members of the campus faculty are recompensed for extension work on 
a graduated scale, applied according to rank and modified according to 
the amount of travel involved. The average remuneration works out at 
about $9.00 for each class meeting of one hour and forty-five minutes, 
travel and subsistence being furnished by the Extension Division. The 
allowance for travel was formerly six cents a mile and was recently cut 
to five. 

76 Report to N. C. Commission ox University Consolidation 

The bureau of class instruction is well organized and efficiently opera- 
ted. Relations with the faculty of the School of Education are excellent. 
The standards of work are high, examinations are carefully conducted, 
and course contents are constantly checked. Since those enrolling have a 
definite vocational objective, usually directly connected with certification 
and salary increases, it would seem that the University is justified in its 
practice of relying upon student fees to pay 72 per cent of the cost of this 
activity. It would be a doubtful policy further to limit, as an emergency 
measure of economy, the Extension Division's freedom to respond to de- 
mands for class service. The effect would soon be felt in the teaching 
staffs of the public schools, particularly in the outlying districts where 
teacher-instruction is most needed. 

It is unfortunate that the University is not now reaching through its 
classes a larger proportion of the non-teacher element in the state. At- 
tempts to organize non-credit classes have not been successful in the past 
few years. It is to be suspected that the offerings made have too closely 
paralleled campus course offerings. If classes dealing with contemporary 
subjects -- such, for instance, as the current economic depression, inter- 
national relations, disarmament, etc. — were offered and backed by skill- 
ful publicity and energetic organizational attack, a new clientele could be 
built up. Classes for teachers are important, but they merely scratch the 
surface of the adult field to be cultivated. There would seem to be much 
room in North Carolina for the development of informal, non-credit, super- 
vised discussion classes. The advantages of bringing members of the 
faculty into contact with the people in the consideration of present-day 
problems are obvious. 

The employment of full-time extension instructors to meet the ex- 
pressed needs of the school-teachers may perhaps be justified, but it has 
grave disadvantages. While it may be argued that such instructors de- 
velop a technique for teaching adults and while it may be convenient and 
economical to locate them in remote portions of the state, still the fact 
remains that funds will not permit (even if it were advisable) the creation 
of a complete faculty of extension adequate to meet the needs of a growing 
state. A small staff of full-time instructors will consist necessarily of 
specialists, who either will not undertake to teach the variety of courses 
demanded or will attempt to do so and spread themselves thin in the 
process. The University might well consider the retention of two, or 
possible three, such extension instructorships for the economical service 
of outlying districts; but it would be well frequently to locate these indi- 
viduals at Chapel Hill for a period of campus teaching. University ex- 
tension should be a veritable effort to bring the University to the people. 
A small specialized staff will not accomplish this purpose. A careful 
study of the financial advantages of full-time and part-time instructional 
staffs should be made. It is probable that a part-time arrangement, 
modified as suggested above, will be found advantageous. 

Efforts should be made, in any coordinated state extension plan, to 
cut down the travel necessitated by extension classes. Enlargement of the 
"spheres of influence" of the College for Women and of State College, 
when those institutions are conducting extension work as a part of the 
University program, will be desirable. Again, through affiliation agree- 
ments, members of the faculties of the fifteen private institutions should 

Adult Education 77 

be enlisted for the extension program, with consequent reduction of the 
mileage problem. 

The fee charged by the University — $10.00 for a "half-course" — is 
not exorbitant. The fee charged by the College for Women is fixed at 
the same amount, but that of State College is appreciably lower, $7.50. 
It goes without saying that the fee should be uniform. Consideration 
should be given to the desirability, in a time of money scarcity, of fixing 
the fee at the rate that will bring the greatest enrollment. The figure of 
$7.50 is probably too low; that of $10.00 is probably too high. Study 
and experimentation by the Director of Extension and the Associate Di- 
rectors should answer the question. 

The University extension enrollments by classes are far too small. 
It is uneconomical and wrong that a University instructor should travel 
many miles to meet a class of twelve or thirteen persons. The theore- 
tical minimum of fifteen should be raised at least to twenty, and possibly 
to twenty-five or thirty. If the larger number is not forthcoming, the 
class should not be attempted. The abandonment of the plan of full-time 
instructors will strengthen the Division's resistance against classes of 
insufficient size, since there is constant temptation to keep full-time in- 
structors busy with classes whose enrollment does not justify the effort 
involved. There is ample proof at hand, in recent studies of college 
teaching at the University of Minnesota, that student success is as great 
in large classes as in small. The aim of the extension organizer should be 
a group of fifty or sixty rather than twenty. With an abundance of good 
roads in North Carolina, he should not allow enrollments to be limited 
to the city or town selected as the location for the class. The lower fee 
suggested above becomes a definite possibility when plans are made for 
much larger groups. 

Correspondence Instruction: The Extension Division operates a Bu- 
reau of Correspondence Instruction, in which 1,400 individuals (a decrease 
of about 240 from the enrollment of the preceding year) are registered 
in about 150 courses. The total number of course registrations is 1,993 
(a decrease of about 400 as compared with the preceding year). Of 
these students, 80 per cent are residents of the state, and approximately 
60 per cent are teachers. Most of the remaining 40 per cent are working 
for credit toward a degree, and are largely former college students who 
for a variety of reasons have had to suspend their regular courses. Only 
3 per cent of the present registrants are not enrolled for credit. All the 
courses offered carry credit, with the exception of accounting and invest- 
ments and certain normal-school courses which are gradually being dis- 
continued. The largest registrations are in education, 582; sociology, 
277; English, 265; history, 224; and economics, 10 2. Other offerings 
include, in order of registration totals, normal-school courses; rural eco- 
nomics; government; mathematics; French; Spanish; social science; 
music; geology; chemistry; German; natural science; and psychology. 

The Bureau shows 74 per cent of course completions, a very high re- 
cord in a field where "mortality" after a few assignments is expected. 

Residents of North Carolina pay $13.50 for a full (double) course of 
from twenty-five to twenty-seven assignments. Such a course carries three 
and one-third units of credit. Non-residents pay $17.00 for the same 
courses. Single (half) courses of fifteen or sixteen assignments are 

7S Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

charged for at the rate of $8.00 for residents and $10.00 for non-residents. 
The rate schedule will be seen to be about 20 per cent less than that in 
effect for extension class work. This relation between charges for the 
two types of work is reasonable and fair. Correspondence registrants 
reside in every county of North Carolina, in twenty-five other states, and 
one territory. Non-residents of the state should be required to pay the 
full cost of their instruction by correspondence, plus overhead charges. 
An increase of the present fee of $10.00 to $12.00 per course, or 20 per 
cent, would seem to be justified. 

Correspondence instruction normally pays 8 4 per cent of its costs of 
maintenance. Instructors, who are members of the resident faculty, most 
of them of professional grade, receive in normal years a fee of $40 for 
writing a full course and $25 for a half-course. They receive 30 cents 
for each paper corrected. All these amounts have been cut 10 per cent 
in the present year and are subject to further reductions. 

The quality of this work performed is high. Much care is taken by 
the instructors to make their marginal and other comments explicit and 
helpful. It is not uncommon for an instructor to spend as much as an hour 
in the correction of a single paper. Comprehensive examinations are 
conducted, and the marking is rigid. There is no evidence whatsoever of 
a lowering of University standards in this work. Correspondence courses 
as conducted by the University of North Carolina are difficult, and the 
student performs more work than in parallel courses in classes either on 
or off the campus. 

The fees charged are reasonable and in consonance with the best prac- 
tice in other state university home-study departments. The element of 
desire for vocational advancement on the part of the individual enters 
here, as in class work, and would seem to justify the University in con- 
tributing only 16 per cent of the cost. 

The University might well try the experiement, particularly in certain 
of its outlying districts where class work is unduly expensive, of con- 
ducting combination correspondence and class courses. Groups of corre- 
spondence students elsewhere have been assembled in conference with an 
instructor at stated intervals with good results. 

Extension Library Service: Perhaps the most interesting and certainly 
the most widespread of the special activities operated by the University 
Extension Division is the Extension Library Service. This service ema- 
nates from the University library building in Chapel Hill, although it is 
one of the component parts of the Extension Division. It originated as 
a Bureau of Public Discussion. The service is primarily that of book- 
lending by mail, although it also involves a bulletin publication enter- 
prise of some magnitude, and a distribution service of pamphlet and other 
educational materials. 

Teachers, students, and general readers to the number of 5,398 last 
year received materials from a collection of more than 1,000 books on 
educational subjects. All but 226 of these individuals resided within 
the state. Many of the users of the service were class or correspondence 
extension students, supplementing their course work. Pupils in secondary 
and elementary schools, included in the above total, received debate 
materials, essays, declamations, plays, pamphlets, and magazine articles. 
During the present year a charge of 10 cents has been made for each 

Adult Education 79 

package, in addition to postage and packing charges; formerly the service 
was free. Last year's volume was 26,304 pieces of mail matter, exclusive 
of letters. 

A special service is offered to women's clubs, which pay a fee of $7.00 
a year ($10.00 if outside the state), for which they receive ten copies of 
an outline of study (published as an extension bulletin), chosen by them 
from a list of forty-five such outlines available. The list includes art and 
music; biography and travel; civic and social problems; the drama; good 
books; history; interior decoration; and literature — American and 
foreign, general and southern. In most cases, these programs are written 
by members of the University faculty; they are admirably compiled and 
presented by experts in the fields covered. The service includes lists of 
references necessary in preparing papers and the privilege of borrowing 
the needed books and materials. During the past year 80 5 clubs were 
served, 211 being registered for the full service and 594 for occasional 
service. The latter groups pay individual fees in varying small amounts 
for the services rendered. To these clubs were sent last year 6,630 pack- 
ages, containing 20,334 books and pamphlets, 10,723 bulletins, and 52 
phonograph records. 

In addition, the service maintains an Alumi Book Club, in which 
alumi, their families, and friends may borrow, at a fee of thirty-five cents 
a volume, from a special collection selected by members of the faculty. A 
similar special service is available to members of parent-teacher asso- 
ciations upon payment of the usual small fee. General readers may in 
addition borrow as many as three books from a special collection of biog- 
raphy, verse, fiction, and non-fiction upon payment of a twenty-five cent 

For all these services there was expended last year a gross of 
$11,344.48, of which $5,572.89 was from fees and the remainder from 
state funds. The dollar-for-dollar principle has obtained, the proportion 
of self-support being just short of 50 per cent. Salaries and wages account 
for almost 60 per cent of the gross; the chief items in the remainder are 
for postage, purchase of books, and the printing of bulletins. 

The general excellence of this work, the high quality of the course 
outlines published, and the need for guidance of the important and influ- 
ential section of the state's population using this service make a strong case 
indeed for the continuance of the service to clubs. The service to the 
schools -- teachers, pupils, and parents — should be subsidized out of the 
state's budget for the public schools. It is doubtful whether the public 
school system will be equipped to perform the service for parents and 
teachers as well as the University performs it. There is every reason, 
however, to urge that the service for school pupils be assumed by the State 
Board of Education and that funds be allocated by the Board to the 
University for this specialized work with teachers and parents. 

What seemingly is an opportunity for the organization of non-credit 
courses among clubwomen, parent groups, etc., should be followed up. So 
far no such courses have eventuated as a result of library extension, but 
there is clearly indicated here a field for the discussion group organized 
by the Extension Division under competent faculty leadership. 

High-School Relations: As one of its extension activities, the Uni- 
versity has taken leadership in high-school debating since 1913. In that 

80 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

year a High School Debating Union was organized as the result of under- 
graduate interest in the subject at the University, expressed through two 
literary societies. The present participation in this activity totals 218 
schools; all of these took part last year in a series of triangular debates, 
the 52 winners sending their teams, numbering 208 speakers, to the 
University for the finals. The Extension Division has organized a Bureau 
of High-School Debating and Atheletics, with a full-time secretary in 
charge. In addition to debating, contests have been organized in the high 
schools in Latin, French, Spanish, and mathematics. Athletic contests 
are also held. The contest program reaches about 10,000 high-school 
students a year. Last year the high-school enrollments totaled 6 69, di- 
vided as follows: debating, 218; athletics, 182; academic, 269. The 
Bureau also serves as secretary to the High School Athletic Association 
of North Carolina, and organizes the coaching school held in the summer 
for high-school athletic directors. The attendance last summer was 78, a 
total of 552 since the school was formed in 1922. 

In the debating field, the Bureau publishes a well-edited and com- 
plete Debate Handbook, on the subject under discussion for the year. The 
last two dealt with "Compulsory Unemployment Insurance" and "Inde- 
pendence for the Philippines. These bulletins, accompanied by other 
material in mimeographed form, are sent free to participating high 
schools. The Bureau also publishes numerous circulars which are sent 
to the schools. 

The gross cost of this service last year was $5,650.27. Income from 
sales of publications, etc., yielded $750.00, the net outlay in state funds 
being $4,900.27. The chief item of expense is the salary of the secretary 
and his clerical assistant. 

Excellent as this service is, it is almost impossible to defend the 
expenditure of the money needed for its maintenance from University 
funds. The state's services to high schools and high-school students 
should be carried on the state's books as school allocations and not as 
expenditures for higher education. It may well be advantageous to con- 
tinue to conduct these contests under University leadership and control. 
If so, a special subsidy for the work should be made to the University 
from state school funds. 

Lectures, Short Courses, and Radio: For the past two years the 
practice has been followed of referring requests for lectures direct to the 
faculty members concerned, the Extension Division taking no direct re- 
sponsibility, financial or otherwise. The number of requests for lectures 
has dwindled and there seems to be no clear policy on the part of the 
University in this matter. Ten years and more ago faculty members were 
called upon to perform a considerable amount of outside lecturing with- 
out fee, At present, a certain few are in demand and receive honoraria 
for their services. 

There is need for clarification on this point. The Extension Division 
might well set up a lecture-booking bureau for the new University, to 
which all requests for individual lecturers should be referred. While 
the University should not cut itself off from furnishing lecturers free in 
certain cases provided faculty volunteers can be found, still the tendency 
always should be to insist upon the payment of a fee, adequate to meet 
booking expense, travel expense, and a fair remuneration to the lecturer. 

Adult Education 81 

This service should not be subsidized by state funds; it should be made 
to earn its way. An investment in dignified publicity of the pamphlet 
variety, furnished to organizations throughout the state, might yield a 
return and establish the service in the public mind. Private booking 
agencies seemingly are flourishing despite the depression. 

Short courses, institutes, conferences, and conventions have tradi- 
tionally been arranged by the Extension Division in cooperation with the 
departments and schools concerned. This is a necessary and legitimate 
activity of the University and should be encouraged. It can not be ex- 
pected to yield income. Last year a State Press Conference, a Dramatic 
Festival, a Parent-Teacher Institute, a Boy Scout Seminar, a Real Estate 
Institute, a Life Insurance School, and a State Bar Convention were held. 

Radio programs have been conducted for four years, the broadcast 
last year being limited to lessons in French and Spanish. It would not 
seem that full advantage had been taken of the possibilities of radio- 
instruction, particularly on the basis of organized discussion groups and 
other gatherings of listening learners. Many groups are now being 
formed in various parts of the country for discussion of educational 
materials broadcast nationally on the chain systems under the sponsor- 
ship of the National Advisory Council on Radio in Education. The 
services of a trained University leader for these groups would be ad- 
vantageous and could be furnished on a fee basis that would offset most 
of the cost. The new University of North Carolina should consider plans 
to offer at least once a week a combined radio hour which might be ex- 
pected to result in group activity. 

Community Drama: North Carolina has long led the nation in the 
field of community drama. The demands upon the University for leader- 
ship have increased, but curtailment in funds has caused the work to 
suffer. In place of the usual full-time representative, only part-time 
service is now available. The Bureau of Community Drama has worked 
through the Carolina Dramatic Association, which includes fifty-four 
organized groups in the city and county high schools, colleges, and com- 
munity little theaters. Attention is given to play production, pageants, 
and festivals. The writing and production of native drama have been 
stimulated. The Bureau maintains a loan collection of plays and related 
materials. An annual tournament and festival is held at the University, 
preceded by preliminary rounds in which thirty-eight groups participated 
last year. The attendance at the Annual Festival was 2,000, including 
250 directors and other members of the State Dramatic Association. It 
would be advisable to restore this Bureau to full efficiency at the earliest 
date practicable. The work can not be expected to earn any considerable 
part of its way, and the University should frankly face the necessity of 
expending from $2,000.00 to $2,500.00 a year for this purpose instead of 
the $372.88 (approximately one-half the gross expenditure) now contem- 
plated. North Carolina's enviable position in this field should not be 

Other Services: The Extension Division conducts a number of activi- 
ties of general service to the state, few of which yield any considerable 
income, but all of which are significant because of the leadership that they 
give to various important groups. Too much can not be said in support 
of this type of activity. It is a field in which the expenditure of state funds 

82 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

may legitimately be increased rather than decreased. The records show 
that in the past few years lack of funds has brought about a marked recession 
in this type of endeavor on the part of the University. 

These services include the Bureau of Recreation, concerned chiefly with 
teachers of physical education and leaders in various organizational efforts 
involving recreation. Bulletins have been published and other leadership 
given with the cooperation of the School of Public Welfare. 

The Bureau of Economic and Social Surveys, a cooperative arrangement 
with the Department of Rural Social Economics, publishes in normal times 
numerous bulletins and surveys arising out of the work of the Department; 
these are sold and distributed by the Extension Division, whose budget is 
called upon to defray the cost of printing and issuance. The publications 
item of the administrative budget — at present $4,435 — covers this type of 
expenditure, but since many of the bulletins are distributed free in North 
Carolina, the income is only about 25 per cent of the expenditure for this 
purpose. Included in this category is the Neivs Letter, originating in the 
Department of Rural Social Economics and sent widely to newspaper editors. 
The cost of the News Letter — $2,800 annually when issued as at present on 
a fortnightly basis (normally it is a weekly) — is charged against Extension 
publication funds. This Bureau, because of lack of funds, has practically 
ceased the issuance of occasional bulletins. 

The Bureau of Municipal and County Government is similarly organized, 
and functions in a like manner in its field. Its activities have been seriously 
curtailed in the past two years. The Extension Division is charged with a 
$2,400 salary for this Bureau, the recipient at present devoting his entire 
time to research and campus teaching. Either this sum should be devoted to 
the actual work of the Bureau or the charge should be transferred to the 
Department of History. The desirability of developing the work of this 
Bureau in the field of citizenship is obvious. 

The Bureau of Educational Information is conducted without expense 
to the Division through the cooperation of the School of Education. It 
should be continued. 

Some work in visual education is performed, though decreasingly in 
late years. The development of reasonably priced motion-picture projectors 
with sound, a most recent accomplishment, may be expected to bring about 
increased future usefulness of this medium. Motion-picture film and stere- 
opticon slide rentals should be made sufficiently high to cover the cost of 
operation of a Bureau of Visual Education, when the need for such a bureau 
has been demonstrated. 

A State Poster Contest has been held for school children — another 
activity which should be charged against state school funds. 

These general services, the importance of which has already been em- 
phasized, nearly all find their natural outlet in publications — bulletins, 
circulars, pamphlets, and the like. The fields of commerce and industry, 
public health, penology, community music, etc., formerly touched by publi- 
cations and conferences, are not now reached. The continuance of the 
publications program is vital to the progress of the state; it should be 
increased in size as funds permit. Part of the general administrative expense 
of the Extension Division is for the editorial supervision of these publica- 
tions, for which no charge has been made. The general University admin- 

Adult Education 83 

istration and the departments in which bulletins originate have profited by 
this arrangement. The work naturally should be performed by a university 
press, which under ideal conditions would assume financial responsibility 
also. If no such arrangement is possible, the publications budget of the 
University should be so recast as either to relieve the Extension Division of 
a part of this financial burden or to throw upon it the entire responsibility 
for the University publications program, with suitable financial support 

North Carolina College for Women 

Extension work at the North Carolina College for Women was first 
organized in 1924. As a campus institution the College was established to 
meet the educational requirements of women, and in conformity with this 
purpose the extension program is planned to meet the off-campus needs of 
the feminine population of the state. The work falls under two classifica- 
tions: formal, consisting of extension classes maintained principally for 
teachers; and informal, consisting of a publications program, high-school 
service, and a conference and advisory service to parent-teacher organiza- 
tions and their members. No correspondence work is offered. 

Extension Classes: The number of enrollments in extension classes 
this year is 431, a decrease of from 12 to 15 per cent, attributed to the 
depression. The number of individuals enrolled is 307. Twenty-seven 
courses are given in 14 centers, all located in territories not touched either 
by the University or by State College. This is a smaller number of centers 
than is usually served, and a correspondingly smaller number of classes. 
The diminution of 12 to 15 per cent seems to hold through all phases of 
the registration. The average number registered in a class is 16, although 
classes of 10 and 12 are not exceptional. The largest class has a registra- 
tion of 36. 

The classes are in the following subjects, arranged in order of total 
registration: English, 184; history, 56; education, 35; art, 33; sociology, 30; 
economics, 19; supervision, 19; government, 17; health, 12; science, 11. It 
is worth noting that, unlike the University, where the class emphasis is laid 
on courses in education, the College for Women concentrates chiefly on 
subject-matter courses, with English and history leading. These, as well as 
courses in methods, are acceptable for teacher certification. 

Fees paid by students for class work are mainly uniform with the class 
fees exacted by the University of North Carolina. The usual payment for a 
single course is $10. Ninety-five per cent or more of the enrollment is made 
up of teachers, all of whom are taking the work for college credit or cer- 

Instructors, all of whom are full-time members of the College campus 
faculty, and usually of professorial rank, are paid a flat fee of $9.00 per 
lecture, with the addition of a travel allowance of six cents a mile, or bus 
fare. Instructors are permitted by the College to teach only two extension 
courses a year. The increment to faculty incomes is less than $300.00 a 
year. A similar increment is possible through six weeks of summer session 
teaching; twelve weeks of such teaching is not allowed. 

Classes normally meet for sixteen weeks, although certain courses are 
offered over a period of twenty-four weeks, for which additional credit is 

84 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

The College for Women, like the University and the State College, has 
catered chiefly to teachers in its organization of extension classes. The 
possibility of developing classes and discussion groups in cooperation with 
clubs, parent-teacher organizations, and churches should be explored. 

Classes are much too small; they should not be undertaken unless a 
minimum requirement of twenty to twenty-five registrations is met. The 
theoretical minimum of fifteen registrations is not enforced and there are 
at present fifteen (out of the total of twenty-seven) classes consisting of 
fifteen or fewer individuals. This is a waste of instructors' time that could 
be avoided by renewed attacks upon the organizational problem. The work 
given is of a high standard, and the College has sternly resisted all attempts 
to cheapen its courses. 

Publications: The Extension Division of the College for Women is 
active in the dissemination of published material. The Bulletin of the North 
Carolina Council of Women in Education, the Bulletin of the North Carolina 
Federation of Women's Clubs, the North Carolina Parent-Teacher Bulletin, 
the Clip-Sheet and News Letter of the Institute of Women's Professional 
Relations, and the Library Notes bulletin of the College library all are dis- 
tributed through the extension machinery and through the various private 
organizations of women with which the Extension Division is in contact. 
None of these bulletins, or any part thereof, is an actual charge against the 
Extension budget. The College maintains a separate publications fund, 
which, together with fees and subscriptions furnished by the outside organi- 
zations, covers the cost of publication. 

Special Activities: The College maintains close relations, through its 
extension agency, with the parent-teacher movement in the state. The 
extension field worker of the North Carolina Congress of Mothers and 
Parent-Teacher Associations is a part-time member of the extension staff. 
Her duties are in connection with the bulletin and the holding of conferences, 
district and state. The small subsidy given to this work — about $2,000 — 
from state funds would seem to be eminently justified by the results ob- 

Through cooperation with the Department of Music, the Extension 
Division for thirteen years has conducted a music contest in the high 
schools of the state. Preliminary contests by districts culminate in a final 
contest at the College in April. Last year 2,397 students from 80 high schools 
participated in the district elimination and state contest. The total number 
of schools participating was 120. This work, like the contests sponsored 
by the University, is of excellent caliber and much needed in the schools. 
It should be subsidized, however, from public school funds if the school 
organization is not equipped to take it over. There are many advantages 
in retaining the sponsorship in the College, but such retention should not be 
at the financial expense of the Extension Division or constitute a drain upon 
the faculty of the department concerned. 

Other special activities include conferences with and services to deans 
of girls in the public schools, business and professional women, etc. These 
are all activities well worthy of state support. The income from them will 
always be negligible. The Extension Division also conducts a five-day 
coaching school for girls' basketball coaches. This is self-supporting. 

Adult Education 85 

Financial Considerations: It is difficult to determine the exact financial 
status of extension at the College for Women. The Director, who is the field 
organizer, is also business manager of the College. He devotes approximately 
one-fourth of his time to extension. A $2,000 salary charge is made against 
Extension for this direction. In addition, part-time salaries of a secretary 
and parent-teacher field worker are included. However, none of the publi- 
cations distributed by the Extension Division is charged against its budget. 
Last year $7,410 was expended in actual fees for teaching and approximately 
$3,500 for travel expense. The income from fees was approximately $7,000. 
The probable total for overhead, including three part-time salaries, admin- 
istrative travel, and office supplies, is $6,500. It is to be noted that this sum 
does not include either publications expense or postage. To this $6,500 
should be added $3,500 for instructors' travel and $7,500 for instructors' 
remuneration, which would give a grand total of $17,500. Receipts from 
students' fees will normally run from $7,000 to $7,500, leaving the net cost 
to the state about $10,000 a year. The work is, therefore, about 40 per cent 

As the volume of the class work grows, it may be expected that this 
figure will rise to 50 per cent or better. The dollar-for-dollar policy is 
seemingly easy of accomplishment at this institution. Insistence upon larger 
classes and the possible lowering of the fee charged, when a uniform 
schedule is approved for the new University, may be expected to affect the 
figure also. 

North Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engineering 

The State College initiated its College Extension activities, outside of 
agriculture and home economics, with a series of correspondence courses in 
ceramics engineering in 1924-25. The success of this course led to the 
development of other correspondence courses and finally of extension classes. 
These two formal lines of endeavor, with the addition of short courses and 
certain organizational contact work, comprise the extra-mural schedule of 
the College. 

Extension Classes: The estimated number of enrollments in extension 
classes this year (organization work is not completed) is 1,373, as compared 
with an actual total of 1,666 for last year. The decrease of from 15 to 20 
per cent is attributed to the depression. The actual number of individuals 
enrolled last year was 691 and the estimated number for this year is 600. 
Last year 75 classes were conducted; this year's estimate is 60. The average 
enrollment in each class is 22.8, a figure which will be maintained during 
the present year. Fourteen centers are being served; none conflicts with 
University or Women's College classes. Twenty-three centers were served 
last year. The average distance of these centers from Raleigh is 79 miles; 
for last year the corresponding figure was 50 miles. 

Courses being given this year are in the following subjects, arranged 
in order of estimated total registration: education, 414; history, 299; 
English, 246; geology and soils, 148; sociology, 125; psychology, 41; art, 30; 
German, 25; Spanish, 20; chemistry, 15; French, 10. The emphasis here as 
at the University, but in less degree, is on education. History and English, 
however, also have heavy enrollments. 

S6 Report to N. C. Commission ox University Consolidation 

The fee paid by students is $7.50 as compared with $10.00 charged at 
the other state institutions for like services. The lower fee may be respon- 
sible for larger class registrations. The average of 22.8 is gratifyingly high; 
there are few classes of less than 15 students. All should be brought up to 
the 20-25 minimum if possible. The clientele, as at the other institutions, 
is 95 per cent composed of teachers, practically all of whom are working for 
college credit or for certification. 

Instructors are all full-time members of the campus faculty and usually 
of professorial grade. They are remunerated on a graduated scale com- 
mensurate with rank, experience, size of class, and distance. The result is a 
definitely lower rate of compensation than is found at the University and 
the College for Women. 

State College has perhaps concentrated too heavily upon the teacher 
group, although efforts to develop non-credit courses, it is reported, were 
not highly successful. Little evidence is available as to the manner of 
presentation of these offerings; there would seem to be a need, particularly 
in a city as large as Raleigh, for informal adult education. 

Uniformity with the other institutions in fees paid by students may 
be expected to increase income slightly. The College avers its willingness 
to duplicate any campus course on compliance with the minimum rule; this 
is perhaps too ambitious an objective. 

Correspondence Courses: The enrollment in correspondence courses in 
1930-31 was 445. The figure as of January 15, 1932, covering the first half of 
the academic year, was 357, which indicates a probable increase for the 
entire year of about 200 registrations. Of the 357 now registered, 319 are 
enrolled for credit and 38 are not. Courses are offered in agriculture; 
chemistry; education and psychology; economics and business law; English; 
geology; history and government; engineering, including ceramics; mathe- 
matics; modern languages; sociology. By far the heaviest enrollment is in 
history and government, 80 per cent being in this course. Sociology ranks 
second with about 10 per cent of the total. The percentage of completion 
is said to be high, though no actual figures are available. 

The College makes a charge of $7.50 for a single correspondence course. 
This charge is 50 cents less than that of the University. 

The rates of remuneration to faculty, both in class and in correspond- 
ence work, are so low that they might cast doubt upon the quality of service 
rendered. There is every indication, however, that faculty members teaching 
in extension have given of their best. It is the practice of College Extension 
to pay a minimum of $60.00 and a maximum of $112.50 for a two-hour 
course once a week for sixteen weeks. This is at the rate per session of 
$3.75 for instructors paid at the minimum rate and $7.00 for those who 
receive the maximum. At the College for Women the rate is $9.00, and at 
the University of North Carolina it averages $S.00 for the instructors of 
lower rank, and $9.00 for full professors. (The University's scale is also 
graduated in accordance with distance from Chapel Hill.) State College 
allows six cents a mile for travel. In the correspondence department at 
State College, the allowance for preparation of a two-semester-hour course of 
sixteen assignments is $25.00 (compared with $40.00 at the University). 
Reading and correction of papers is paid for at the rate of 10 cents a paper; 
the comparable figure at the University is 27 to 30 cents. 

Adult Education 87 

The rates paid instructors for preparation of courses and for reading 
papers submitted are definitely too low. The fact that extension is self- 
supporting at State College is partly the result of low organizational cost 
and administrative overhead, but more directly it represents a heavy con- 
tribution of time and energy on the part of the instructional staff — too heavy 
a burden to be long continued in the case of men already carrying full teach- 
ing responsibilities on the campus. 

Special Activities: The College Extension activities have included a 
cooperative arrangement with a power company, by which employees of tbe 
company were given a combination correspondence and class extension 
service. When the original appropriation made by the company was ex- 
hausted, it was not renewed. The percentage of completion for the first 
division of this work was high. Courses have been given in steam-power- 
plant enginering and other subjects especially requested. A short course 
given annually for fifty electrical metermen has been uniformly successful. 
The work with parent-teacher organizations has been stopped because of 
lack of funds. This consisted largely of supplying speakers, whose travel 
expenses were paid by the College. A lecture bureau for College speakers has 
been maintained. All special courses, activities, and institutes have been 

Financial Considerations: The entire extension program of State Col- 
lege has been self-supporting. This has been made possible by the low 
remuneration of faculty and low organization expense and overhead. The 
directing head of the enterprise is the College librarian. His salary is not 
charged to Extension. One field organizer and a part-time stenographer- 
secretary complete the staff. The Department has no publication program, 
and it has been able to take on no service which would not pay its own way. 
Extension did a gross business of $12,680.00 last year. This sum was 
expended as follows: fees to instructors, preparation of correspondence 
courses, correction of papers, etc., $6,196.00; travel, $2,244.07; administrative 
salaries, $2,980.00; and the balance for miscellaneous small items. The 
estimated gross for this year is $11,200.00, with the same plan of distribution 
of costs. 

If the extension work were properly subsidized at State College, and 
reasonable charges for administrative and teaching services made against 
it, an improved service to the public would result and the individual faculty 
member would be given a decent wage for his extra-mural teaching service. 
It is useless to deny that faculty members now devote time and energy to 
off-campus teaching as a matter of loyalty to their college and to their 
profession — presumably not at the expense of their campus teaching, although 
the suspicion that the latter suffers will persist until the condition is rem- 
edied. The College administration is not to be blamed for this situation; 
it sensed a need on the part of the public and has attempted to meet that 
need despite the lack of sufficient state funds to do so. Any coordinated state 
plan of extension should include State College on the same basis as the 
other branches of the University. 

Agricultural Extension: A widely developed system of agricultural 
extension is maintained at State College, regularly expending annually a 
total of $634,000; $334,000 from federal funds, $120,000 from state funds, and 
$180,000 from local funds. County farm agents are maintained in eighty- 

88 Report to N. C. Commission ox University Consolidation 

three out of one hundred counties, four of which have in addition assistant 
agents. Sixty-two women are employed as county home demonstration 
agents or supervisors, and there is an administrative staff of seven at head- 
quarters. In addition, seventeen counties have Negro county farm agents 
and seven Negro women are employed as county home demonstration agents. 

The activities of this large staff reach 30,000 through the Four-H Clubs 
and a total of over 1,000,000 people during a year. The number of extension 
meetings is given as 7,795, with 1,163,161 in attendance. Over 29,000 farms 
were visited last year, and 13,9S9 different homes. 

It is strongly to be urged that any comprehensive system of state-wide 
general extension and adult education should include the active cooperation 
of this group of trained workers. There is nothing in the state or federal 
laws which Avould prevent the farm agents from acting as educational and 
vocational counselors to the people whom they visit. The availability of the 
state's general extension services should be brought to the attention of the 
rural population through these agents, and through the agricultural extension 

Need of a State Policy 

The need for a unification of state policy with regard to many perplexing 
extension problems will be manifest from a perusal of the preceding sections 
of this report. It is the purpose of this section to summarize and enumerate, 
and in some cases to discuss briefly, certain of the matters upon which 
agreement as between the several branches of the new University is im- 
portant to the best interests of the state. 

Allocation of State Funds: A decision should be reached as to the 
amount which the state feels it wise to expend upon general extension in 
a given year. The amount spent has run as high as $75,000; this year it 
will be about $40,000. This lower budget figure has resulted in serious 
curtailment of services at the three institutions, particularly at the 
University, and in the continuation of unfairly low standards of remunera- 
tion at State College. The state should expend at least $70,000 for extension 
services in the year to come. Such an appropriation would insure a dollar- 
for-dollar contribution from the people of the state for these services — a 
reasonable and normal arrangement which is to be highly commended. If 
the present financial stringency should persist, a temporary reduction would 
be necessary; it would be unfortunate if this were more than 10 per cent. 
The expectation that increased state appropriations for adult education will 
be needed in the future should be faced. In normal times, $150,000 a year 
from state funds for this purpose could be used to good educational ad- 
vantage and would result directly in the economic and spiritual betterment 
of the state's population. 

Development of New Fields: There is need for unified institutional 
action in developing new fields of adult education within the state, where 
needs are great but have not become articulate. In this connection, the 
utilization of public school plants, libraries, and churches is most important. 
The tendency in all three institutions included in the survey has been to 
concentrate too greatly upon the school-teacher. The needs of the teacher 
are not to be overlooked, but there are other sections of the population which 
have a right to similar advantages at partial state expense. The informal 
extension activities of all three branches of the University should be allowed 

Adult Education 89 

to grow; the amassing of college credit is not a paramount need of the body 
politic, but the consciousness of contact with collegiate institutions on the 
part of normal adults makes for their health of mind and for the good of the 
commonwealth. The institutions might profitably lessen their emphasis on 
converting those already converted to education, and address themselves to 
the untouched elements in the communities. Industry and labor are not 
adequately served at present. Professional groups other than teachers need 
attention. Attempts should be made to discover both cultural and vocational 
needs. Technological changes in industry and increasing leisure present 
new problems. 

Allocation of Territory: The growth of demands for service makes 
constant conference regarding the allocation of territory a paramount 
necessity in order to prevent duplication and overlapping. The groundwork 
for such conference is already laid. The cooperation of the private colleges, 
Duke University, and the state teachers colleges will be highly desirable. 
Each of these institutions should be affiliated with the plan. 

Uniform Administration: Many administrative details of management 
should be discussed in order to make for a certain amount of uniformity, 
both for the sake of obtaining a simplified institutional organization and in 
order to dispel confusion in the minds of users of extension services through- 
out the state. The matter of credit for class and correspondence courses is a 
case in point. At present the College for Women allows extension class work 
to a total of one year toward a degree. The University allows one year by 
correspondence and one and one-half years by class instruction or by class 
and correspondence combined. State College permits four-fifths of a year by 
correspondence and one and one-fifth years by class or by class and corre- 
spondence combined. The result is confusion. Agreement as to the institu- 
tional interchangeability of these credits should be reached. 

Other matters upon which some degree of agreement would be desirable 
are rates of remuneration for faculty; the size of classes, minimum and 
maximum; amounts of fees to be paid by students for class and correspond- 
ence courses; minimum and maximum teaching loads for instructors; the 
extent of informal services and organizational aid to be accorded; the relative 
desirability of offerings in education and in other subject-matter fields; the 
interchangeability of field organization services; the future utilization of 
the agricultural extension staff; the desirability of a unified radio program; 
the advantages of combined publicity announcements; cooperative announce- 
ments of courses and other publications. 

It would be desirable also to come to a decision regarding the need, if 
any exists, for university extension centers in outlying districts. The 
desirability or the undesirability of employing full-time extension instructors 
is another problem which should receive inter-institutional discussion. 
Likewise, a policy should be established with regard to correspondence 
offerings from all three centers (the College for Women does not now offer 
such courses), as well as the selection of fields and subjects in which desira- 
ble results may be obtained by home study. A library extension policy 
should be outlined, and cooperation with the State Library Commission, as 
well as the institutional libraries concerned, should be sought. 

It is evident that a consolidated approach to adult education in North 
Carolina, from the point of view of the consumers of such offerings rather 

90 Report to N. C. Commission on University Consolidation 

than of the institutions offering the service, will do much to advance the 
quality of citizenship within the state. It is necessary that the entire 
problem be visualized — a task worthy of the mettle of educational statesmen. 
North Carolina, starting from the favorable position in which she now finds 
herself, may well blaze a trail of national as well as of state importance. 

Major Recommendations 

To make possible the realization of the objectives as set forth, the 
following recommendations are made: 

1. That there be established in the University system a Division of 
extension with a director. 1 It would be the duty of this director to develop 
a unified program of general extension adapted to the needs of the state. 
Each branch of the University would take such part as the interests and 
qualifications of its staff made possible. 

2. That an Advisory Council be established consisting of the director, 
the director of Agricultural Extension Service, a representative of the State 
Department of Education, and a representative of each branch of the new 

In any unified plan which may be adopted, care should be taken to 
avoid hard-and-fast rules for the conduct of the work. Complete flexibility 
is of the highest importance, for developments in the field of adult education 
are rapid and as complex as the manifold ramifications of American life. 
The North Carolina program of the future should keep step with industrial 
change, shifts in population, vocational trends, and the expanding cultural 
needs of the state. 

Minor Recommendations 

1. The work of the extension service is confined largely to teachers. 
An effort should be made to build up a new clientele outside the teaching 

2. The employment of full-time extension instructors should be kept 
at a minimum. 

3. The minimum enrollment for which an extension class will be 
maintained should be raised to at least twenty. 

4. The cost of the service rendered to the public schools of the state 
should be borne by the State Board of Education. 

5. In general, public lectures should not be subsidized from state 

6. The Bureau of Community Drama should be more adequately 
financed at the earliest possible date. 

7. An effort should be made to include the state teachers colleges and 
the private institutions in the development of the state's program of adult 

8. The unification of the extension service under one administration 
should result in uniformity of fees, credit, amount paid for services of the 
faculty, minimum size of classes, etc., regardless of the branch of the 
University through which the work is done. 

1 The President may deem it more expedient to work out the program by means of a com- 
mittee. If this were done, the chairman of the committee would carry the responsibilities 
suggested for the director. 



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94 Appendix 


Tentative Program for Training Teachers of Commercial Studies for 

High Schools in North Carolina at the North Carolina 

College for Women 

(Leading to Degree B.S. in Commerce) 

To obtain the highest grade of certificate the state requires the student 
to take the following: 

Courses in education and psychology 21 hours 

(Including educational psychology, materials and 
methods in two fields, and practice teaching) 

Courses in commerce 45 hours 

Courses in English „ 24 hours 

(It is assumed that English could be most satis- 

factorily worked out as the second teaching 

Total required by the state 90 hours 

Further College requirements not included in the 

above, such as freshman history, science, etc 30 hours 

Total required courses 120 hours 

(Apparently no electives possible) 

Under the 45 hours of commerce required, the following are suggested: 

Stenography and typewriting 10 or 12 hours 

Accounting - 3 hours 

Office management „ _ . 3 hours 

Principles of economics 6 hours 

Commercial law 6 hours 

Banking and investments _ 6 hours 

Statistics _ 3 hours 

Economic geography 3 hours 

Modern business organization 3 hours 

Business English ___. 3 hours 

48 hours 

Appendix 95 



An Act to Consolidate the University of North Carolina, North Carolina 
State College of Agriculture and Engineering, and the North Carolina 
College for Women into the University of North Carolina. 

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

Section 1. That the University of North Carolina, the North Carolina 
State College of Agriculture and Engineering, and the North Carolina College 
for Women are hereby consolidated and merged into "The University of 
North Carolina." 

Sec. 2. That the North Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engi- 
neering shall from and after the ratification of this act be conducted and 
operated as part of the University of North Carolina. It shall be located at 
Raleigh, North Carolina, and shall be known as the North Carolina State 
College of Agriculture and Engineering of the University of North Carolina. 

Sec. 3. That the North Carolina College for Women shall from and after 
the ratification of this act be conducted and operated as a part of the 
University of North Carolina. It shall be located at Greensboro, North 
Carolina, and shall be known as the Woman's College of the University of 
North Carolina. 

Sec 4. The trustees of the University of North Carolina, shall be a 
body politic incorporate, to be known and distinguished by the name of 
"The University of North Carolina." Upon this body politic incorporate 
there is hereby conferred all the powers, privileges, authority, and duties 
now imposed upon the trustees of the University, as it now exists, to be found 
in section five thousand seven hundred and eighty-two of the Consolidated 
Statutes of one thousand nine hundred and nineteen. In addition to these 
powers, etc., said elected board of trustees, as hereinafter constituted, shall 
succeed to all the rights, privileges, duties, and obligations now by law, or 
otherwise, enjoyed by or imposed upon the existing University of North 
Carolina, the North Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engineering, 
and the North Carolina College for Women. 

Sec. 5. Notwithstanding the provision of section four hereof all present 
members of the board of trustees of the University of North Carolina and 
all members elected to fill vacancies on said board by the nineteen thirty-one 
session of the General Assembly, as provided in section five thousand seven 
hundred and eighty-nine of the Consolidated Statutes, one thousand nine 
hundred and nineteen, all present members of the board of trustees of North 
Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engineering and all members to 
be elected to fill vacancies on said board by the nineteen hundred and thirty- 
one session of the General Assembly, as provided in section five thousand 
eight hundred and twenty-five (a), five thousand eight hundred and twenty- 
five (b), five thousand eight hundred and twenty-five (c), of the Consolidated 
Statutes (Third Volume), as amended by chapter eighty-six. Public Laws of 
one thousand nine hundred and twenty-nine, and chapter two hundred and 
fifty-five, Public Laws of one thousand nine hundred and twenty-nine, and 

96 Appendix 

all present members of the board of trustees of the North Carolina College 
for Women, shall be and remain members of the board of trustees of the 
various schools of which they have heretofore been trustees with the same 
rights and powers which they have heretofore exercised until July first, one 
thousand nine hundred and thirty-two. 

The General Assembly in one thousand nine hundred and thirty-one, 
shall elect trustees of the University of North Carolina, as herein provided, 
to the number of one hundred (100), of whom at least ten (10) shall be 
women, to succeed the consolidated board herein provided for. These trus- 
tees, on and after July first, one-thousand nine hundred and thirty-two, shall 
take over and exercise all the powers, duties, privileges, authority, and 
obligations of the consolidated board which they succeed. They shall be 
elected in manner and form as now provided in section five thousand seven 
hundred and eighty-nine of the Consolidated Statutes of one thousand nine 
hundred and nineteen, and as a corporate body in the management of its 
internal affairs shall have powers now imposed upon the existing board of 
trustees of the University by section five thousand seven hundred and ninety 
and five thousand seven hundred and ninety-one of the Consolidated Statutes, 
one thousand nine hundred and nineteen, and shall be subject to rules and 
regulations applicable to them in sections five thousand seven hundred and 
ninety-two and five thousand seven hundred and ninety-three of the Consoli- 
dated Statutes, one thousand nine hundred and nineteen. 

Sec. 6. That within sixty days after the ratification of this act, the 
Governor shall appoint a Commission of which he shall be Chairman and 
Member ex-offieio to work out plans for the consolidation of the component 
parts of the University. This Commission shall be composed of twelve 
members in addition to the Governor, two of whom shall be appointed by the 
President of the University of North Carolina from the members of the 
faculty of the University of North Carolina; two of whom shall be appointed 
by the President of the North Carolina State College of Agriculture and 
Engineering from the members of the faculty of the State College of Agri- 
culture and Engineering and two of whom shall be appointed by the Presi- 
dent of the North Carolina College for Women from the members of the 
faculty of said College; Provided, that the Presidents of said institutions may 
serve on said Commission in lieu of one member of the faculty; the six 
remaining members of the said Commission shall be selected by the Gov- 
ernor from the State at large: Provided, that not more than one shall be a 
member of the board of trustees of any one of the institutions to be consoli- 
dated: Provided further, that two of said members shall be women. 

Sec. 7. That said commission shall be charged with the following duties: 

1. To work out a scheme to bring about an unification of the executive 
control in the University of North Carolina, North Carolina State College of 
Agriculture and Engineering, and the North Carolina College for Women, 
so that each of said institutions may best serve the State and the needs of the 

2. To unify and coordinate the general educational program of the 
University of North Carolina as herein provided for. 

3. To work out a scheme in which, and through which, all the problems 
arising from the consolidation of the three existing institutions into the 
University of North Carolina may, in their opinion, be best solved. 

Appendix 97 

4. That the final location of all schools, departments, and divisions of 
work now located at any of the three institutions shall be subject to the 
study and recommendations of the experts and the commission without 
prejudice by any provisions in this bill. 

5. To consider the advisability of the awarding of diplomas or other 
certificates ex legis by the University of North Carolina to former graduates 
of the North Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engineering and the 
North Carolina College for Women, and to recommend the form or forms 

Sec. 8. The commission on consolidation, herein provided for, shall 
enter at the earliest reasonable time upon the porformance of these manda- 
tory duties, and so continue until they have provided a practical plan of 
consolidation, coordination, and unification and merger, as contemplated 
by this act. The report shall be completed and in the hands of the consoli- 
dated board of trustees, herein provided for, and those of the Governor, not 
later than July first, one thousand nine hundred and thirty-two. It shall 
employ distinguished and competent experts in the several pertinent fields of 
higher education in America. These experts shall take account of the ex- 
periences of the several American states in the various forms of unification, 
whether consolidation, coordination, or other forms of unified guidance and 
control of higher education and shall study the circumstances and needs 
of higher education in North Carolina. They shall on the basis of their 
expert studies and scientific findings make their report and recommendation 
to the commission with regard to the form, extent, procedure, and all details 
of unified guidance and control. The expenses of the commission, including 
compensation of such employees, shall be paid out of the contingency and 
emergency fund provided for in the general appropriation act of the session 
of one thousand nine hundred and thirty-one, in the manner provided by 

Sec. 9. The Governor, after receiving the report of the commission on 
consolidation as herein provided for, shall cause a meeting of the hoard of 
trustees to be called, and he shall submit said report to said board of trus- 
tees. If the board of trustees shall disapprove of any part of said report, 
then that part of the report disapproved of shall be modified in accordance 
with the views of the said board. The report, when approved by the said- 
board, or when so modified by it, shall be and remain the rules and regu- 
lations under which the consolidated University and its component parts 
shall continue to function until such rules and regulations shall be 
changed, modified, or amended by the board of trustees. 

Sec. 10. That pending the bringing about of the unification, consolida- 
tion, and merger as herein provided for, the several institutions, herein 
consolidated and merged, shall continue to operate as separate insti- 
tutions, in accordance with their present plan of operation. There shall, 
however, be not less than one meeting of the consolidated board of 
trustees as herein provided for, and not less than one meeting of the 
consolidated executive committee herein provided for in each year, such 
meetings to be called by the Governor. 

Sec. 11. From and after the final adoption of the rules and regulations 
under which the consolidated University and its component colleges shall 

98 Appendix 

operate, all degrees or marks of literary distinction conferred by the 
University of North Carolina or any of its component colleges as herein 
specified, shall be conferred by the faculty of the University of North Caro- 
lina or the faculty of any one of its component colleges by and with the 
consent of the board of trustees, but degrees or marks of literary distinction 
conferred by the faculty of any one of the said colleges shall designate the 
college through or by which said degree or mark of literary distinction is 

Sec. 12. All gifts and endowments, whether moneys, goods or chattels, 
or real estate, heretofore or hereafter given or bestowed upon or conveyed to 
any one of the institutions, as existing before the ratification of this act, 
shall continue thereafter to be used, enjoyed, and administered by the 
particular unit to which they were given or conveyed; but if there were 
trusts, they shall be administered by said unit in accordance with the 
provisions of the trust deed creating them, for the benefit of the particular 
institution to which such trust deed was executed. The administration of all 
these funds, endowments, gifts, and contributions shall, however, be under 
the control of the board of trustees of the University of North Carolina, as 
created in this act. 

Sec. 13. None of the provisions of this act shall be construed to modify 
or repeal or render invalid any of the provisions of Article one, relating to 
the University of North Carolina; Article two, relating to the North Carolina 
State College of Agriculture and Engineering; and Article four, relating to 
the North Carolina College for Women, of chapter ninety-six of the Consoli- 
dated Statutes of one thousand nine hundred and nineteen, as amended in 
any particular except where any of such provisions in these articles conflict 
with this act or the intent and purpose with which it is enacted, that is to 
say, to bring about an effective consolidation of the three institutions thus 
named into the University of North Carolina, organized as herein provided. 

Sec. 14. This act shall be in full force and effect from and after its 

Ratified this the 27th day of March, 1931. 

Appendix 99 


Special Message of Governor O. Max Gardner to the General Assembly of 
North Carolina on the Subject of the Proposed Consolidation of the 
University of North Carolina, North Carolina State College, and 
North Carolina College for Women, February 13, 1931. 

Ladies and Gentlemen of the General Assembly : 

As we consider the proposal for the consolidation of the three major 
institutions of higher learning in North Carolina, I trust that we may find 
it possible to approach this vital question solely from the standpoint of 
the welfare and progress of the State's higher educational effort as a 

I would not for an instant minimize, or assume an attitude of in- 
difference towards, any sentimental factor which this proposal may fairly 
be said to involve. Still less would I deny to any institution concerned 
the privilege of a jealous regard for its own individual and academic 
integrity. As I see it, they are charged with the duty to exercise this 
regard. I have the deep conviction, however, that the principle and 
policy under consideration are so broad in their scope, and so far-reaching 
in their ultimate implications, that any adequate approach must pre- 
suppose that we shall forget any narrow allegiance to any institution as 
an institution per se. We must remember that we are citizens — students, if 
you will - of that greater institution which is the State of North Carolina, 
and that any move or policy which best serves its interests and welfare 
and progress will, in the long run, best serve the University, and State 
College, and the North Carolina College for Women. We must see each 
part in its relation to the whole and broaden our perspective so as to 
include not only three campuses, three faculties, three traditions, and a 
trinity of rich opportunities, but the entire future course and future 
effectiveness of higher education in this State. 

Our problem is not to concentrate upon the minor maladjustments 
which may be cured by remedial internal administration. Our problem 
is rather to view the entire higher educational effort of this State in terms 
of trends extending over generations and to direct these trends into chan- 
nels which will prevent waste and insure to the rising generation the best 
training we can provide. 

The reason for public support of education in a democracy is that we 
may have an educated citizenship. In the original act establishing the 
University of North Carolina, it is asserted to be "the indispensable duty 
of every Legislature to consult the happiness of rising generations and 
to endeavor to fit them for an honorable discharge of the social duties of 
life by paying the strictest attention to their education." 

Are we doing this in North Carolina today? Are we getting 100 cents 
worth of educational opportunity for every dollar thus invested? 

The taxpayers of North Carolina should not now be expected to support 
more than one graduate school. Graduate instruction is expensive. It 
costs on an average from three to four times as much per student as 
undergraduate instruction. It should represent the best in equipment and 
instruction personnel, and it should be closely coordinated to the needs 

100 Appendix 

of the State. The peculiar glory of a graduate school is its teachers. At 
the present time we are attempting to maintain two graduate schools, with 
two others in prospect as soon as the General Assembly can be induced to 
appropriate the money. Try to visualize what the situation will be, unless 
this tendency is controlled, ten, twenty, forty years from now. We shall 
have no less than four state-supported universities, each trying to carry 
forward a vast, over-lapping program; and because the State cannot 
adequately support all, the quality of service rendered by all must of 
necessity be mediocre. 

I do not pose as an expert on higher educational administration. I 
have maintained from the first that the actual working out of this con- 
solidation is a task for a small commission, assisted by disinterested 
educational experts. The bill provides for a commission, assisted by such 
experts as it may require, to make a thorough study of the situation and 
to bring about, within a year, the actual consolidation. The actual con- 
solidation should be based on the most careful and thorough study. But 
I maintain that it does not require an expert to discern the inherent 
wastefulness, both in energy and resources, of the present trend. This 
bill is an enabling act designed to make it possible to remedy the situation. 
Our institutions are supported out of one treasury: I can see no valid 
reason why they should not be under one executive management and one 
board of control. 

Practically the only thing this bill provides for immediately is the 
adoption of the principle of consolidation. The boards of trustees are 
merged, but even this is not finally completed until 1933. It is not 
contemplated that the present presidents of these institutions shall be 
disturbed, or that there will be an immediate change of internal policy. 

The private endowment and the present and future benefactions of 
each institution are adequately safeguarded. 

The provisions of the bill recognize that the objectives aimed at can 
be fully accomplished only over a period of time. It does enable us to 
make a beginning. It makes possible ultimately the united support of 
North Carolina behind one great, unified, coordinated, and intelligently 
directed educational enterprise. Our present task is to preserve all that 
is good in the present system and to provide for an orderly, considered, 
and directed development in the future.